User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ... · 7/7/2007  · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (2024)

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (1)

User Guidebook onImplementing Public-Private Partnershipsfor TransportationInfrastructure Projectsin the United States

Final ReportWork Order 05-002

Prepared for:

Office of Policy andGovernmental Affairs

Prepared by:

JULY 7, 2007

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (2)

July 7, 2007

Mr. James W. MarchTeam Leader - Industry and Economic Analysis TeamOffice of Policy and Governmental AffairsFederal Highway Administration (FHWA) - HPTS1200 New Jersey Avenue, SEWashington, DC 20590

User Guidebook on Implementing Public-Private Partnerships for Transportation InfrastructureProjects in the United States - Task Order 05-002

Dear Mr. March,

AECOM Consult, in association with DMJM Harris, FaberMaunsell, Maunsell of Australia, the NationalCouncil of Public-Private Partnerships, and the Ybarra Group, is pleased to provide the final UserGuidebook on Implementing Public-Private Partnerships for Transportation Infrastructure Projectsin the United States. This report provides a comprehensive set of insights for developing andimplementing transportation infrastructure projects using PPP approaches. It is aimed at both the earlypractitioners of PPP projects as well as those agencies just beginning to consider the possibility institutingsome form of PPP arrangement for a particular project currently stalled for lack of available resources.

This PPP User Guidebook describes the many participating groups, stages of development, andinstitutional factors associated with surface transportation PPPs. It considers the full life-cycle of PPPs,from development to execution to performance reporting. It identifies and discusses statutory, regulatory,financial, and institutional issues that should be addressed to successfully implement and manage a PPPproject. The guidebook suggests a general process for developing transportation project PPPs andstrategies for overcoming impediments faced by public and private sector partners during contractdevelopment and project implementation phases. The guidebook also offers general lessons learnedfrom prior or current transportation PPP projects in the United States and other countries.

Two companion reports present PPP program descriptions and case studies and cameos of actualtransportation PPP projects. One report focuses on transportation PPP projects in the United Stateswhile the other report focuses on transportation PPP programs and projects in other countries wheremodern PPPs evolved and have been used for many years.

We appreciate the opportunity to prepare this PPP User Guidebook. We acknowledge the support andassistance provided to the study team by members of the FHWA Office of Policy and GovernmentalAffairs, FHWA Office of the Administrator – PPP Unit, and FHWA Resource Center in San Francisco. Weare especially grateful for your guidance and suggestions throughout this study effort.

Very truly yours,

Daniel L. Dornan, P.E.Senior Consulting ManagerAECOM Consult, Inc.

AECOM CONSULT, AN AFFILIATE OF DMJM HARRIS

3101 WILSON BOULEVARD, SUITE 400

ARLINGTON, VIRGINIA 22201

T 703.682.5100 F 703-682-5001 WWW.DMJMHARRIS.COM

An AECOM Company

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (3)

USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FORTRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED STATES

PREFACE

Highway transportation agencies across the United States face fiscal challenges caused by thegrowing gap between the costs of providing and preserving highway infrastructure and availablehighway program funding. The inability of motor fuel taxes to provide adequate funds hasprompted transportation policymakers to consider alternative ways to develop neededtransportation projects. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) represent a wide variety of projectfinancing and delivery approaches which offer the potential to expedite projects and cost-effectively operate and maintain the resulting facilities and services. By leveraging scarce publicfunds for transportation facilities, PPPs can help transportation agencies do more with less.The common element of a PPP is that public sponsors of transportation projects engage theprivate sector to a greater degree in the performance of certain functions previously handled bythe public sector. This can range from contract maintenance to life-cycle finance, development,operations, and preservation.The U.S. Department of Transportation and its surface transportation administrations areencouraging their counterparts at the state and local government levels to consider the use of PPPapproaches to accomplish more projects in their work programs. This document providesguidance in the application of PPPs to transportation projects based on the experiences oftransportation agencies in the U.S. and other countries that have applied these deliveryapproaches. The guidebook is aimed at both early practitioners of PPP projects as well as thoseagencies just beginning to consider the possibility of instituting PPP approaches for projectscurrently stalled for lack of available resources.The PPP User Guidebook describes the many participants, stages of development, andinstitutional factors associated with developing and implementing PPPs for transportationinfrastructure projects. It considers the full life-cycle of transportation facilities, fromdevelopment to execution to performance reporting. It identifies and discusses statutory,regulatory, financial, and institutional issues associated with implementing and managing PPPprojects. It suggests a general process for developing transportation PPP programs and projectsand strategies for addressing impediments and managing risks faced by public and private sectorpartners during contract development and project implementation phases. It also providessummary information on a sampling of prior or current PPP projects, including lessons learnedfrom these projects.The PPP User Guidebook on is intended to assist sponsors and providers of transportationprojects take the necessary steps and precautions to promote successful delivery of PPP projectswhile protecting the public interest, especially the ultimate users of the facilities so developed.

Two companion reports present descriptions of PPP programs and case studies of transportationprojects using PPPs. One report focuses on PPP projects in the U.S. while the other reportfocuses on PPP programs and projects in other countries where PPPs have a longer history ofuse. The report on international PPP programs and projects describes how PPP approachescontinue to evolve and be introduced in additional countries seeking to expand theirtransportation networks to better participate in the growing global economy.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (4)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section Page

PREFACE

1. INTRODUCTION 1Experience in Developing and Implementing PPPs 1

Focus of Guidebook 1 Contents of Guidebook 2

2. RATIONALE FOR ALTERNATIVE PROJECT DELIVERY APPROACHES 3 Issues Driving Interest in Alternative Project Delivery Approaches 3 Assessment Framework for Considering Transportation PPPs 6

Federal Transportation Agency Leadership Support for PPPs 8 Key Questions to Guide Consideration of PPPs 9

3. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP APPROACHES 10 Background 10 Definition of Public-Private Partnerships 10

Public-Private Partnership Approaches 11 Other Types of PPP Approaches Focused on Project Funding 16

Potential Benefits of PPPs for Transportation Projects 17

4. CRITERIA TO DETERMINE PPP OPPORTUNITIES 20 Project Suitability Criteria for PPP Project Delivery 20

Agency Readiness For PPPs 24 States Most Likely to Sponsor Surface Transportation PPPs 28

5. PROGRAM FRAMEWORK FOR DEVELOPING AND MANAGING PPPs 29Institutional Requirements and Issues 29

Legal Considerations 31

Procurement Considerations 34 PPP Project Development and Implementation Processes 45

Transportation PPP User Guidebook i

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (5)

TABLE OF CONTENTS continued

Section Page

6. IMPEDIMENTS AND RISK MANGEMENT FOR TRANSPORTATION PPPs 48 Key Impediments 48

Adressing Impediments to Transportation PPPs 50 Risks Associated With Transportation PPPs 52

7. DOMESTIC AND GLOBAL USE OF TRANSPORTATION PPPs 59Use of PPPs for U.S.Road-Related Projects 59

Comparative Use of PPPs for U.S. Highway and Transit Projects 61

Future Use of PPPs for U.S. Surface Transportation Projects 63 Global Use of PPPs to Advance Road-Related Projects 64

Capabilities to Support Transportation Project PPPs 66

8. LESSONS LEARNED FROM TRANSPORTATION PPP PROJECTS 70Critical Success Factors for PPP Project Development and Implementation 70

Lessons Learned from U.S. and International Transportation PPP Projects 70

9. CONCLUSIONS 79 Global Use of Alternative Project Delivery Methods Leads to Domestic Applications 79 Public-Private Partnership Approaches Leverage Scarce Public Resources 79 PPP Program and Project Development Steps and Critical Success Factors 80 Benefits and Risks for Public Sponsors and Private Providers of PPP Projects 82

Need for Objective Comparison of PPP Advantages and Limitations 83 Overcoming Uncertainty of PPPs while Balancing Public and Private Interests 84

APPENDIX A - SAMPLE TRANSPORTATION PPP PROJECT RESULTSFROM THE U.S. AND OTHER COUNTRIES A-1

APPENDIX B - STATUTORY AUTHORITY AND KEY PROVISIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION PPP PROJECTS BY STATE B-1

APPENDIX C - GLOSSARY OF TERMS C-1

APPENDIX D - LIST OF ACRONYMS D-1

APPENDIX E PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP REFERENCES E-1

APPENDIX F - PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP WEB SITE LINKS F-1

Transportation PPP User Guidebook ii

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (6)

LIST OF EXHIBITS

Exhibit Page

1. Issues Driving Greater Interest in Alternative Project Delivery Approaches 32. Potential Advantages of PPPs Relative to Traditional Project Delivery 5

3. Context and Potential Institutional Issues of Using PPPs 64. Change Process for Addressing Institutional Impediments to PPPs 7

5. Major Phases of Infrastructure Project Development and Delivery 116. Major Types of Public-Private Partnerships 13

7. Potential Benefits of PPPs for Surface Transportation Projects 188. Public and Private Sector Benefits of Transit-Oriented Development 19

9. Key Criteria for Defining Projects as Candidates for Pursuit as a PPP 2010. Key Prerequisites for Undertaking PPP Procurements 21

11. Public Sector PPP Project Selection Criteria 2212. Private Sctor PPP Project Selection Criteria 22

13. Project-Based Criteria for Selecting PPP Approaches 2314. States with Legal Authority to Use PPPs for Transportaation Projects 24

15. States with Design-Build Project Delivery Authority 2516. States Participating in FHWA s Value Pricing Pilot Program in 2005 27

17. States with PPP Legislation, Design-Build Authority, and VPPP Projects 2818. Transportation Agency Requirements for an Effective PPP Program 29

19. Key Issues to Consider in Developing a Transportation Agency PPP Program 3020. Statutory-Based Legal Issues Associated with Transportation PPPs 31

21. Negotiation-Based Legal Provisions of Transportation PPP Contracts 3222. Key Legal Considerations in Developing Surface Transportation PPPs 33

23. Overview of PPP Project Development Process 3524. Key Issues During PPP Procurement and Negotiation Processes 36

25. Sample Components of a PPP Project Request for Qualifications 4226. Sample Pre-Qualification Evaluation Criteria 43

27. Key Factors to Evaluate PPP Project Bids 4428. Potential PPP Project Performance Measures 45

29. PPP Implementation Steps for Public Agency Sponsors 4630. Potential Cultural Differences between Public and Private Partners 48

Transportation PPP User Guidebook iii

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (7)

LIST OF EXHIBITS - continued

Exhibit Page

31. Potential Impediments to Transportation PPPs 4932. Strategies to Address Impediments to Transportation PPPs 50

33. Additional Strategies to Address Issues Related to Transportation PPPs 5234. Summary of Major Risks Associated with Transportation Projects 53

35. Functional Responsibilities and Risks of Private Partners by PPP Approach 5636. Consequences and Mitigation Strategies for PPP Project Risks 57

37. U.S. Road, Bridge, and Tunnel PPPs by Facility Type 6038. U.S. Road, Bridge, and Tunnel PPPs by Contract Type 60

39. Major Highway and Transit PPP Projects since 1991 6140. Use of PPPs for Major Highway and Transit Projects since 1991 62

41. States with Existing and Pre-Award Concessions 6342. Number and Value of Road-Related PPPs by Global Region 64

43. Global Road-Related PPPs by Facility Type, Excluding the U.S. 6544. Global Road-Related PPPs by Contract Type, Excluding the U.S. 65

45. Road Projects Planned or Completed by Region and Contract Type, Excluding the U.S 6746. Top National and International Transportation Developers as of 2006 68

47. Partial List of U.S. and International Companies Financing Transporation Infrastructure 6948. Illustrations of Selected PPP Projects from the U.S. 71

49. Illustrations of Selected PPP Projects from Other Countries 7350. Critical Success Factors for Transportation PPP Projects 74

51. Key Ingredients to a Successful PPP Project Implementation 7552. Lessons Learned from U.S. and International PPP Projects 76

53. Critical Inputs and Desired Outcomes of Transportation PPPs 8054. PPP Program and Project Development Flowcharts 81

55. Potential Benefits and Risks of PPP Approaches by Partner 82

Transportation PPP User Guidebook iv

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (8)

1. INTRODUCTION

The growing interest and experience in using public-private partnerships (PPPs) to expeditetransportation infrastructure projects in the United States has followed the efforts bytransportation agencies in other countries to address funding shortages to meet urgenttransportation expansion and replacement needs by engaging the private sector to a greater extentthan in the past. This document provides guidelines for transportation agencies in the U.S. oninstitutional issues and strategies for developing, implementing, and managing PPP contractualarrangements to expedite transportation projects.

EXPERIENCE IN DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING PPPsExperience in various countries which have used PPPs to deliver transportation infrastructureprojects for many years shows that the structure and delivery methods selected are highlydependent on a number of factors, including:

• Enabling statutes and regulations and underlying taxation policies;• Capabilities of all members of the PPP to effectively execute their roles and

responsibilities in a transparent and accountable manner;• Contract flexibility and a proactive approach to identifying and resolving issues that arise

during project development and implementation phases;• Contract terms for developing and sharing revenues produced by the PPP project; and• Ability of financial markets to deliver financing structured to suit each PPP project.

These issues vary from country to country and should be addressed on a project-by-project basis.Particularly important are potential political risks where the local or national economy and/orpolitical environment are less stable.As more states have begun to undertake PPPs, lessons are being learned about the opportunitiesand challenges of PPP approaches and how impediments to implementing PPPs once thought tobe insurmountable can be addressed. Moreover, the U.S. is entering a new phase in surfacetransportation investment, and PPPs are likely to be increasingly relied upon by state and localgovernments to finance transportation infrastructure improvements. Understanding the PPPlandscape and the lessons learned from prior or current PPP projects are valuable fortransportation agencies considering or beginning to use PPP approaches to project delivery.

FOCUS OF GUIDEBOOKThe PPP Guidebook addresses the many participating groups, development phases, andinstitutional factors associated with transportation PPPs. It considers the full life-cycle of PPPs,from development to execution to performance reporting. It discusses statutory, regulatory,financial, and institutional issues that should be addressed to successfully implement and managePPP projects. The guidebook suggests a general process for developing transportation projectPPPs and strategies for overcoming impediments and managing risks faced by public and privatesector partners during contract development and project implementation. The guidebook alsooffers lessons learned during prior or current PPP projects and commentary on possibledevelopments that transportation project sponsors and providers may encounter as alternativeproject delivery approaches become more prevalent, diversified, and sophisticated.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 1 Introduction

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (9)

In developing and implementing a PPP project, long-term and near-term issues should beidentified and solution strategies developed and applied. These include:

• Long-range strategic decisions, such as regulatory structure or tolling strategy, that aregenerally undertaken by high-level policymakers; and

• Short-term tactical issues, such as maintenance schedules, reinvestment strategies, andcontract administration and enforcement, that are usually handled by staff analysts.

Planning for PPPs should give substantive weight to the perspectives of both public and privatesector partners, as well as project stakeholders and the general public. This will help eachpartner understand and accommodate the most important concerns of the other members of thepartnership so that an acceptable arrangement is produced that balances public and privateinterests.

CONTENTS OF GUIDEBOOKThe contents of this PPP User Guidebook are intended to help practitioners and thosecontemplating the use of PPPs better understand what is involved in their development,implementation, and management. This will assist sponsors and providers of PPP projectsidentify and take the necessary steps and precautions to promote a successful project deliveryexperience for all parties to the partnership, including the ultimate users of the facilities sodeveloped.This document is composed of individual sections that discuss different aspects of thedevelopment, implementation, and management of PPPs for surface transportation projectssponsored by public agencies in the U.S. These include the following sections:

Section 2 - Rationale for Alternative Project Delivery ApproachesSection 3 - Public-Private Partnership Approaches

Section 4 - Criteria for Determining PPPs OpportunitiesSection 5 - Program Framework for Developing and Managing PPPs

Section 6 - Impediments and Risk Management for Transportation PPPsSection 7 - Domestic and Global Use of Transportation PPPs

Section 8 - Lessons Learned from Transportation PPP ProjectsSection 9 - Conclusions

These sections are followed by five appendices, listed below:

Appendix A - Sample PPP Project Results from the U.S. and Other CountriesAppendix B - Statutory Authority and Key Provisions for PPP Projects by State

Appendix C - Glossary of TermsAppendix D - List of Acronyms

Appendix E - PPP ReferencesAppendix F - PPP Web Site Links

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 2 Introduction

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (10)

2. RATIONALE FOR ALTERNATIVE PROJECT DELIVERY APPROACHES

This section discusses the rationale for transportation agencies to consider developing and/orfinancing needed surface transportation projects using alternative approaches that have thepotential to provide greater value than traditional approaches in the public interest. It begins bylisting the key issues driving public sponsors or these projects to consider public-privatepartnerships as an alternative to the traditional approaches of design-bid-build project deliveryand pay-as-you-go financing. It also provides an assessment framework for augmenting thetraditional project development approach with a broader array of delivery and financing options.

ISSUES DRIVING INTEREST IN ALTERNATIVE PROJECT DELIVERYAPPROACHESCapital budgets for surface transportation facilities have flattened or been reduced while theneeds for and costs of new facilities and rehabilitation of older infrastructure have grown wellbeyond available funding. Increased taxation is politically unpopular, yet the public demandscontinued improvements in the capacity, safety, and efficiency of its transportation facilities andservices. The result is an ever-widening gap between available funding and needs of the nation ssurface transportation program.

These issues and their underlying causes, as listed in Exhibit 1, are driving the growing interestby transportation agencies across the United States in alternative project delivery approaches andinnovative finance techniques.

Exhibit 1 Issues Driving Greater Interest in Alternative Project Delivery Approaches

• Growing demand for U.S. transportation infrastructure− Favorable economic conditions in U.S.

− Lower long-term traffic and revenue risks− Relative safe haven for international investment low political and economic risks

− Heavily industrialized states in the northeast with extensive transportation facilitiesthey cannot afford to rehabilitate or replace

− Expanding states in the south and southwest with rapidly growing populations andexpanding transportation capacity requirements

• Widening funding gap between public revenues and surface transportation needsis leading to critical fiscal conditions for the nation s highway program

− Declining growth in traditional revenues, especially motor fuel tax proceeds− Increasing costs of renewal, replacement, or expansion as material and right-of-way

costs escalate− Increasing use of the automobile and truck for mobility

− Increasing levels of congestion on urban area roadways

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 3 Rationale for PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (11)

Exhibit 1 Issues Driving Greater Interest in Alternative Project DeliveryApproaches - continued

• Scarcity of federal funding is forcing project sponsors to seek alternative ways tofinance and deliver projects

− State/local governments take on more program and funding responsibilities− State/local agencies lack resources and tools to efficiently address needs

• Opportunity for increased transportation program revenues and cost-effectiveness− Access to capital markets

− Creative capital financing− Expedited project delivery and lower inflationary project costs

− Application of best practices− Access to new technology

• Liquidity of existing tolled facilities provides quick returns for current officials− Address critical state and local budget issues

− Address backlog of transportation reconstruction and expansion needs− Turn paid for assets into current sources of long-term program funding

The last driving issue listed above may turn out to be somewhat fleeting. The early examples ofleasing existing tollways to concessionaires who offered substantial up-front funds in return forthe proceeds of future escalating tolls have become increasingly controversial as their termsbecame better understood. Those deals in which windfall profits are likely to accrue to theconcessionaire due to embedded toll rate increases (e.g., Chicago Skyway and Indiana TollRoad long-term concession leases) or where the up-front lease proceeds are used for non-transportation purposes (e.g., Chicago Skyway concession lease) have raised several importantquestions regarding:

• What is the value of these kinds of PPPs and how they are structured?• Do sponsoring agencies have trained and experienced staff resources to adequately value

long-term leased assets?• Are long-term concession leases structured to be in the public s best interest, while also

satisfying private partner feasibility criteria?

These questions and uncertainties reflect the importance that both public and private partnersfully understanding the implications of PPP agreements and their relative allocation ofresponsibilities, risks, and value capture when drafting the Request-For-Proposal andnegotiating the subsequent contract.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 4 Rationale for PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (12)

The purpose of this is to ensure there is provision for the following results of the PPPprocurement process:

• Equity for all parties to the partnership;• Fulfillment of feasibility criteria for the public and private partners, respectively; and• Assurance that the public interest is best served by the project delivery approach selected.

When properly structured and executed, alternative project delivery approaches offer a variety ofpotential advantages for cash-starved transportation infrastructure programs, including thoselisted in Exhibit 2 below. These potential advantages will be more fully discussed in Section 3.

Exhibit 2 Potential Advantages of PPPs Relative to Traditional Project Delivery

• More rapid development - of infrastructure assets and introduction of new technologiesunder a PPP project arrangement.

• Improved efficiency - in construction, operation, and maintenance of the infrastructurearising from:

− Innovations in service delivery;− Incentives in the PPP contract;

− Better institutional integration throughout the life-cycle of the facility; and− The potential for increased value for money relative to traditional approaches.

• Access to new private capital including taxable equity and either taxable or tax-freedebt to supplement scarce public funds.

• Higher quality and customer satisfaction - due to focus on performance-basedstandards, enhanced quality control and assurance, and contractual accountability.

• Public agencies able to focus on their strengths including long-term serviceplanning and management, environmental clearance, permitting, right-of-wayacquisition, standards setting, and performance measurement and reporting - havingturned over part or all of financing and/or day-to-day operating responsibility to theirprivate partners.

Despite their potential advantages, public-private partnerships in transportation have beenrelatively slow to develop in the United States, especially when compared to many othercountries, especially in Europe, Asia, and South America. The notable feature of a PPP is asharing of risks and rewards that accompany the project. This sharing of risk and reward isforeign to most transportation agencies in the U.S., which are more accustomed to a strictdelineation of public and private sector roles and responsibilities. In addition, numerous legaland institutional impediments have slowed early efforts to implement PPP approaches, even on apilot basis.In most cases, enabling legislation has been required to allow state or local transportationagencies to enter into PPPs for highway or transit infrastructure projects. New businessrelationships are required, often with larger national or international firms that can handle the

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 5 Rationale for PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (13)

increased risk and responsibility of a PPP contract which is often much larger than typicalprojects of the past. This, in turn generates competition and fairness concerns, both forsponsoring agencies which seek to attract a sufficient number of bids for the contracts, and forsmaller contractors who may feel unable to compete in the new environment. In addition, thescope and complexity of negotiations between the sponsoring agency and its contractors canincrease significantly, as the allocation of risk, the acceptable rate of return, and the contractincentives are carefully defined.

ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK FOR CONSIDERING TRANSPORTATION PPPsExhibit 3 provides a framework for assessing the potential of a transportation project to bedelivered as a PPP. This framework includes both the contextual factors and various institutionalissues likely to be encountered in developing and implementing a PPP project.

Exhibit 3 Context and Potential Institutional Issues of Using PPPs

Among the items displayed in Exhibit 3, one of the most important factors to consider and thehardest to change is the underlying culture of the sponsoring organization - the set of values andbeliefs that guide how the organization functions and responds to change. Another key factor inevaluating the potential of using a PPP approach is the legality of private sector involvement inthe project relative to funding, project delivery, asset management, risk management, and valuecapture (whether through toll revenues or incremental taxes or fees on adjacent property whosevalue is increased due to the enhanced accessibility provided by the PPP project).

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 6 Rationale for PPPs

InstitutionalContext

Project Typeand Scale

Nature - Levelof Private Sector

Involvement

Sources ofFunding

Stages of ProjectDevelopment

Cycle

CurrentPotentialfor PPPs

Culture

Restrictive LawsArchaic RegulationsTraditional Finance Strategies

Inflexible Management StyleOrganizational Stovepipes

Stakeholder ResistanceBureaucratic Procedures

Lack of Competition

InstitutionalContext

Project Typeand Scale

Nature - Levelof Private Sector

Involvement

Sources ofFunding

Stages of ProjectDevelopment

Cycle

CurrentPotentialfor PPPs

Culture

Restrictive LawsArchaic RegulationsTraditional Finance Strategies

Inflexible Management StyleOrganizational Stovepipes

Stakeholder ResistanceBureaucratic Procedures

Lack of Competition

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (14)

Exhibit 4 illustrates the elements of the change process needed to improve institutionalwillingness to consider using alternative project delivery approaches by:

• Enabling sponsoring agencies to gain insights from prior PPP efforts into best practicesfor addressing potential impediments to PPPs, listed below in the red box;

• Allowing flexibility in how PPPs can be structured and managed to maximize potentialoutcomes while protecting the public interest;

• Providing a balanced assessment of alternative project delivery approaches andtraditional approaches; and

• Developing an objective basis for determining if a PPP approach provides the potentialfor greater benefits than the transitional project delivery approach.

The exhibit shows the importance of experience from successful PPP applications in the U.S. andother countries to enhance the potential for alternative project delivery approaches to beconsidered by project sponsors dealing with funding, congestion, and capacity issues.

Exhibit 4 Change Process for Addressing Institutional Impediments to PPPs

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 7 Rationale for PPPs

InstitutionalContext

Project Typeand Scale

Nature - Levelof Private Sector

Involvement

Sources ofFunding

Stages of ProjectDevelopment

Cycle

CurrentPotentialfor PPPs

EnhancedPotentialfor PPPs

ChangeStrategies

§ Legislation and Statutes§ Rules and Regulations§ Innovative Finance Strategies§ Management Style§ Organization Transformation§ Stakeholder Resilience§ Process Improvement§ Competitive Landscape

Commonality ofIssues across

States andRegions

Experience fromDomestic

Best PracticePartnerships

Experience fromInternationalBest PracticePartnerships

InstitutionalContext

Project Typeand Scale

Nature - Levelof Private Sector

Involvement

Sources ofFunding

Stages of ProjectDevelopment

Cycle

CurrentPotentialfor PPPs

EnhancedPotentialfor PPPs

ChangeStrategies

§ Legislation and Statutes§ Rules and Regulations§ Innovative Finance Strategies§ Management Style§ Organization Transformation§ Stakeholder Resilience§ Process Improvement§ Competitive Landscape

Commonality ofIssues across

States andRegions

Experience fromDomestic

Best PracticePartnerships

Experience fromInternationalBest PracticePartnerships

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (15)

FEDERAL TRANSPORTATION AGENCY LEADERSHIP SUPPORT FOR PPPsThere is strong support from US DOT leadership for the use of PPPs to expand the size and cost-effectiveness of the surface transportation program, and to leverage scarce public resources. Thecommitment of the federal transportation agencies to PPPs has been stated and restated byvarious senior members of U.S. DOT over the past five years. The following quotes demonstratethis continuing emphasis on PPPs as an important component of addressing the fiscal needs ofthe nation s surface transportation program.In 2003, then FHWA Administrator Mary Peters (now Secretary of Transportation for the U.S.Department of Transportation) made the following comments that reflected the views of theAdministration and U.S. DOT about PPPs for transportation infrastructure projects:

I want to be clear about where the Bush Administration stands, where USDOT and Secretary Mineta stand, and where FHWA stands. We are for public-private partnerships. We support them. We want to make them easier, mucheasier to do . Despite notable successes public private partnerships are stillviewed by many in transportation as unique and fraught with legal, financial,and administrative hurdles. Abundant experience in the use of PPPs in otherareas, and the growing experience in transportation illustrate that these hurdlescan be overcome. We can lower costs and speed project completion. In a timeof funding shortages at all levels of government, it is particularly important thatwe look to opportunities for the private sector to participate in fundingtransportation infrastructure improvements. 1

Later in 2004, former FHWA Administrator Mary Peters further reiterated:

In a time of funding shortages at all levels of government, it is particularlyimportant that we allow -- unleash -- the private sector to participate in allelements of infrastructure improvements. We know public-private partnershipswork. We can lower costs and speed project completion.

The time has come to let the free market and public-private partnerships deliverthe innovation, cost savings, and quality they have brought to every otherindustry. 2

1 Federal Highway Administrator Mary Peters address at: “Partnerships for Transportation and Real Estate: A Union StationAnniversary”, Washington, D.C., September 24, 2003.2 Statements delivered by Federal Highway Administrator Mary Peters at the Partnerships in Transportation Workshop, Orlando, FL- October 6, 2004.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 8 Rationale for PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (16)

In his farewell address before the U.S. Chamber of Commerce on July 6, 2006, formerTransportation Secretary Norman Y. Mineta noted:

We need a cultural change to move from a government-monopoly model fortransportation infrastructure toward acceptance of the private sector andmarket forces. 3

The inefficiencies and funding shortages in the country s transportation program underlie thecurrent emphasis on the use of PPPs by federal transportation agency leaders at the US DOT,FHWA, and FTA. Other reasons include the opportunity to expedite badly needed transportationprojects through the application of innovative project funding and financing, more cost-effectiveproject development and delivery approaches based on best practices, and quicker introductionof enabling new technology, as noted earlier.

KEY QUESTIONS TO GUIDE CONSIDERATION OF PPPsGiven the impetus for considering PPPs, there are five related questions that should be addressedby project sponsors and prospective private partners before proceeding beyond merelyconsidering PPPs as a delivery option:

1. What legal, political, and institutional framework would enable a state or localgovernment to undertake a PPP program for surface transportation projects?

2. Can or should an individual project be undertaken as a PPP?3. What kind of PPP approach best suits a project or set of projects?

4. Does the PPP approach offer greater potential public benefits than traditionalproject delivery approaches?

5. Does the PPP approach provide a reasonable balance between public and privateresponsibilities, risks, and rewards?

6. Is the PPP approach in the public s overall best interest while meeting privatefeasibility requirements?

The remaining sections of this document provide insights to help project sponsors and theirprospective private partners answer these questions before deciding whether to commit to aparticular PPP approach or contract agreement.

3 Statement of Former Secretary Norman Y. Mineta in his farewell address before the Chamber of Commerce on July 6, 2006.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 9 Rationale for PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (17)

3. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP APPROACHES

This section defines the fundamental meaning of a public-private partnership and the many typesof project partnership approaches that have been developed and applied to deliver transportationinfrastructure. The section also describes the potential benefits public-private partnerships canprovide to both public agency sponsors and private providers when the most appropriateapproach is used that offers clear advantages relative to more traditional approaches.

BACKGROUNDThe concept of public sector agencies and private sector firms working together in a partnershiparrangement is not a new concept. For centuries this is how major infrastructure facilities suchas roads, aqueducts, canals, and cathedrals were built. It was only in the early part of the lastcentury that the advent of functional specialization, engineering sophistication, and efforts toprevent corrupt procurement practices did a virtual steel wall arise between public agencieswhich sponsored and often developed and maintained transportation infrastructure and privatefirms whose roles were limited to specialized services such as engineering design andconstruction. The result was the creation of the design-bid-build process of project development,in which design plans are produced prior to and independent of project construction.

This bifurcated process limited private sector involvement to these two primary roles which werekept contractually separate to avoid collusion and fraudulent claims. However, it also eliminatedthe opportunity for synergy between these two interrelated functions of design and construction.This often resulted in delayed design plans being rushed to meet inflexible construction bidletting schedules, leading to greater opportunities for errors and omissions frequently caused bysite conditions not being adequately investigated prior to completing the plans. This left thecontractor to discover and address these problems during the construction phase of the project,often delaying the project and driving up its cost.

The lack of trust by transportation agencies in the design and construction firms hired to executethese interrelated functions produced an inefficient project development approach that continuedas long as transportation agencies had ample financial and staff resources to pay for theseinefficiencies. However, as the growth in transportation infrastructure needs began to outpacethe growth in transportation program resources, public agencies began to consider alternativeproject delivery approaches that involved private firms as project partners to help narrow the gapbetween transportation needs and public resources. This led to the development (or rediscovery)of various public-private partnering approaches involving different combinations ofresponsibilities and risk-taking for private and public partners working in collaboration.

DEFINITION OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPSIn the 1990s and early 2000s, the looming fiscal crisis in the nation s surface transportationprogram resulted in statutory and regulatory changes that gave transportation agencies greaterflexibility to involve the private sector to a greater extent in the delivery of transportationinfrastructure. This resulted in various pilot and demonstration programs at the federal and statelevels to enable selected transportation agencies to apply alternative approaches to projectdelivery and financing. These experiments and applications were described in the United StateDepartment of Transportation s Report to Congress on Public-Private Partnerships, produced in2004 by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA).

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 10 PPP Approaches

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (18)

In this seminal report, the FHWA defined PPPs as follows:

A public-private partnership is a contractual agreement formed between publicand private sector partners, which allow more private sector participation thanis traditional. The agreements usually involve a government agencycontracting with a private company to renovate, construct, operate, maintain,and/or manage a facility or system. While the public sector usually retainsownership in the facility or system, the private party will be given additionaldecision rights in determining how the project or task will be completed. 4

PPPs are not the same as privatization in that both public sponsors and private providers functionas partners throughout project development and delivery, and in certain instances operations andmaintenance. PPPs enable public agencies which are responsible for surface transportationinfrastructure to involve private firms to a greater extent than is traditional, performing variousfunctions the private sector is better able to accomplish while retaining those functions the publicsector is best at performing.

PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP APPROACHESExhibit 5 summarizes the major phases that comprise the delivery of infrastructure projects.These phases form the building blocks for alternative project delivery approaches whereby thepublic and private sector take responsibility to certain aspects of each phase.

Exhibit 5 Major Phases of Infrastructure Project Development and Delivery

Greenfield Life-Cycle Asset Development/Preservation Long-Term Concession Development/Lease Program Management

Specialized D-B CM@Risk PreservationConsultants Design-Build Construction Manager at Risk Brownfield Asset Management

D-B-O-MCapital Design-Build-Operate-Maintain Long-TermProjects Maintenance

D-B-F-O BOT/BTO BOO/BOOT ContractsDesign-Build-Finance-Operate Build-Operate-Transfer/Build-Transfer-Operate

Build -Own-Operate/Build-Own-Operate-Transfer

Pre-Planning& Acquisition Finance Design Construction Operations &

MaintenanceUpkeep &

Improvements

Source: Adapted from Pekka Pakkala. Innovative Project Delivery Methods for Infrastructure – AnInternational Perspective. Finnish Road Enterprise, Helsinki, 2002, p.32.

The primary combinations are discussed below, although several of the PPP approachesdescribed are not yet in use in the United States. The first combination describes the traditionalapproach to delivering surface transportation projects used in the United States during the pastcentury. It is included in this section for the purposes of comparison and completeness, though itis not considered an alternative project delivery approach or PPP.

4 Report to Congress on Public-Private Partnerships. U.S. DOT, Federal Highway Administration, December 2004.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 11 PPP Approaches

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (19)

Design-Bid-Build (DBB)This is the traditional form of project delivery where the design and construction of the facilityare awarded separately and sequentially to private sector engineering and construction firms. Asa result, the DBB process is divided into a two-step delivery process involving separate phasesfor design and construction. Under a DBB contract, the project sponsor, not the constructioncontractor, is solely responsible for the financing, operation, and maintenance of the facility andassumes all design risks. The DBB selection process is based on negotiated terms with the mostqualified firm for the design phase while the award of the construction contract is typically basedon the lowest responsible bid price.Most of the nation s highways have been delivered via the DBB delivery approach, especiallysince the Interstate Highway System program was launched in 1956. As the country s highwaysystem evolved during the past fifty years, the traditional DBB project delivery approach becamemore inefficient due to the tendency for project sponsors to rush design plans to meet pre-determined bid letting schedules for construction contracts to be awarded. This promoted theintroduction of design errors or omissions which were then passed along to the winning low-bidcontractor, leading to subsequent change orders and extra work orders to deal with designproblems and unfavorable site conditions. As a result, the low-bidder could often recoupdiscounts offered in the original bid price to win the contract by seeking additional funding topay for design problems through change orders and extra work orders. By the end of thecontract, the total contract cost often exceeded the original high-bid price.

To address the inflexibility and other shortcomings of the traditional DBB project deliveryapproach, a number of alternative project delivery approaches have evolved over the past twodecades. These alternative approaches assigned ever-increasing roles, responsibilities, and risksto private sector teams able to develop and possibly finance the project. This has helped toexpedite project delivery and lower project costs through the use of best practices and avoidingthe effects of inflation on the cost of project materials. These alternative project deliveryapproaches are part of the group of contractual relationships referred to as public-privatepartnerships (PPPs).

Exhibit 6 displays the spectrum of PPP approaches that share the same basic characteristic,namely: greater private sector involvement and risk-taking in the development, financing,and/or operation of transportation infrastructure than has traditionally been the case. Asillustrated in Exhibit 6, PPP approaches range from staff augmentation or maintenance contractswhich involve limited private sector responsibilities, to long-term lease agreements orconcessions which involve maximum private sector responsibilities short of outright sale to theprivate sector. Since PPP approaches often involve greater private sector responsibilities andrisks, the resulting contract agreements often include the opportunity for greater value capture bythe private partner.

It should be pointed out that the greatest potential involvement by the private sector involves theacquisition of the public-use transportation asset by a private partner or team, shown at the top ofExhibit 6. In the United States, asset sales or Build-Own-Operate (BOO) contracts are perceivedas not in the public interest. That is because once the public sector transfers ownership of apublic-use transportation asset to the private sector, it loses control over how the asset ispreserved or priced to the user. This raises significant policy questions for elected and appointedofficials that should be addressed in evaluating what form of PPP is best to use to advance aparticular project.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 12 PPP Approaches

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (20)

Exhibit 6 Major Types of Public-Private Partnerships

HighAsset Sale

Full Service Long-Term Concession or Lease

Multimodal Agreement (Public-Public Partnership)

Joint Development Agreement (JDA - pre-development)

Transit-Oriented Development (TOD - post-development)

Build-Own-Operate (BOO)

Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT)

Build-Transfer-Operate (BTO)

Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT)

Design-Build-Finance-Operate (DBFO)

Design-Build-Operate-Maintain (DBOM)

Design-Build with Warranty (DB-W)

Design-Build (DB)

Construction Manager at Risk (CM@Risk)

Contract Maintenance

Fee-Based Contract Services

LowDe

gree

ofPr

ivate

Sec

tor R

espo

nsibi

lity an

d Risk

AlternativeProjectDelivery

Approaches

Each of these PPP approaches and their potential benefits are described below in order ofincreasing private sector responsibility, risk-taking, and potential for reward.

Private Contract Fee Services/Maintenance ContractThese are contracts between public agencies and the private sector for services that are typicallyperformed in-house, such as planning and environmental studies, program and financialmanagement, and/or operations and maintenance. These contracts are generally awarded on acompetitive bid process to the contractor offering the best price and qualifications. The potentialbenefits of private contract fee services include reduced work load for agency staff, potential forreduced costs, and opportunities to apply innovative technologies, efficiencies, and private sectorexpertise.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 13 PPP Approaches

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (21)

Construction Manager at Risk (CM@R)CM@Risk utilizes a separate contract for a construction manager (CM). The CM begins workon the project during the design phase to provide constructability, pricing, and sequencinganalysis of the design. The project sponsor generally holds a separate contract with the designteam through these initial phases of the CM contract. The CM becomes the DB contractor whena guaranteed maximum price is agreed upon by the project sponsor and CM. The potentialbenefits of CM@RISK delivery include the continued advancement of the project during pricenegotiations and the potential for more optimal teaming because the CM can negotiate will allfirms, rather than having to select from a limited number under DB delivery.

Design-Build (DB)Unlike DBB, where project design and construction functions are procured sequentially, DB(sometimes called Design-Construct) combines the design and construction phases into one,fixed-fee contract. Under a DB contract, the design-builder, not the project sponsor, assumes therisk that the drawings and specifications are free from error. While the design and constructionphases are performed under one contract, the design-builder may be one company or a team ofcompanies working together. The potential benefits of DB delivery compared to traditional DBBdelivery include time savings, cost savings, risk sharing, and quality improvement.

Design-Build with a WarrantyUnder the DB with a warranty approach, the design-builder guarantees to meet material,workmanship, and/or performance measures for a specified period after the project has beendelivered. The warranties typically last five to 20 years. The potential benefits of the DB with awarranty approach include the assigning of additional risk to the design-builder and reducing theproject sponsor s need for inspections and testing during project delivery.

Design-Build-Operate-Maintain (DBOM)Under a design-build-operate-maintain delivery approach, the selected contractor is responsiblefor the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the facility for a specified time. Thecontractor must meet all agreed upon performance standards relating to physical condition,capacity, congestion, and/or ride quality. The potential benefits of the DBOM approach are theincreased incentives for the delivery of a higher quality plan and project because the design-builder is responsible for the performance of the facility for a specified period of time afterconstruction is completed.

Design-Build-Finance (DBF) or Design-Build-Finance-Operate (DBFO)These approaches are variations of DB and DBOM, respectively, except that the DB or DBOMteam provides some or all of the project financing. The potential benefits of the DBF or DBFOapproaches are the same as those under the DB and DBOM approaches and also include thetransfer of the financial risks to the design-builder during the contract period. While the projectsponsor retains ownership of the facility, the DBF and DBFO approaches attract privatefinancing for the project that can be repaid with revenues generated during the facility soperation.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 14 PPP Approaches

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (22)

Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) or Build-Transfer-Operate (BTO)BOT is similar to the DBFO approach whereby the contract team is responsible for the design,construction, and operation of the facility for a specified time, after which the ownership andoperation of the project is returned to the project sponsor. Under the BTO approach, the projectsponsor retains ownership of the facility as well as the operating revenue risk and any surplusoperating revenues. The potential benefits of using the BOT or BTO approaches are similar tothe benefits associated with using a DBOM contract: increased incentives for the delivery of ahigher quality plan and project because the contractor is responsible for the operation of thefacility for a specified time period after construction.

Build-Own-Operate (BOO)Under the BOO project delivery approach, the design, construction, operation, and maintenanceof a facility is the responsibility of the contractor. Under the similar Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT) approach, asset transfer occurs after a specified operating period when theprivate provider transfers ownership to a public agency. The major difference between BOO andDBOM, DBFO, BOT, and BOOT approaches is that ownership of the facility remains with theprivate contractor in the case of the BOO approach. As a result, the potential benefits associatedwith a BOO approach are that the contractor is assigned all operating revenue risk and anysurplus revenues for the life of the facility.

Transit-Oriented Development (TOD)TOD is a special form of joint development which involves pedestrian-friendly, higher-densityresidential, commercial, and/or retail development near transit facilities. TODs may involve apartnership of private developers with local governments, development agencies, and transitagencies to enhance the land use surrounding a transit facility. With a TOD, the privatedeveloper is typically responsible for the financing and risks associated with constructing thedevelopment on publicly owned land. The potential benefits of TODs include revenueenhancement for the sponsoring agency from lease payments, ridership increases, capital oroperating contributions, or one-time fees; increased economic development, higher land values,and increased rental income; increased property and sales tax revenues; and reduced congestionand sprawl.

Joint Development Agreements (JDA)Joint development involves transit agencies working directly with private developers in planningand executing a specific project involving the development on, above, or adjacent to land ownedby a transit agency for a negotiated payment by the developer. Developer payments may includean annual ground or air-rights lease payment for a specified period of time as well as theconstruction cost of transit-related facilities, such as portals to transit facilities, parking facilities,and station facility improvements. Other potential benefits of joint development PPPs includeenhanced agency revenues from operations cost sharing, station connection fees, equity sharingor exchange, and negotiated private contributions.

Multimodal PartnershipsThese arrangements provide opportunities to combine the development, financing, and/oroperation of facilities that serve more than one transportation mode, including highway, transit,rail, and airports. Multimodal partnership projects do not have to be PPPs. However, theopportunities for private sector involvement in multimodal partnerships are an area of potentialgrowth for transit-related PPPs, particularly when toll roads and airports are involved due to the

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 15 PPP Approaches

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (23)

ability to leverage toll revenues and airport passenger facility charges for transportationinvestments.

Long-Term Lease Agreements/ConcessionsLong-term lease agreements involve the lease of publicly financed facilities to a private sectorconcessionaire for a specified time period. Under the lease, the private sector concessionaireagrees to pay an upfront fee to the public agency in order to obtain the rights to collect therevenue generated by the facility for a defined period of time (usually from 25 to 99 years). Inaddition to the concession fee, the concessionaire agrees to operate and maintain the facility,which may include capital improvements in some instances. The potential benefits of long-termlease agreements include transferring responsibility for increases in user fees to the privatesector; generating large up-front revenues for the public agency; transferring most project,financial, operational and other risks to the private concessionaire; and gaining private sectorefficiencies in operations and maintenance activities.

OTHER TYPES OF PPP APPROACHES FOCUSED ON PROJECT FUNDINGThe number and variety of PPP approaches is constantly evolving to meet the needs of projectsponsors and the circ*mstances associated with specific projects, such as size, complexity,funding sources, and financing needs. Some of the recent attributes of change in PPParrangements include the following:

• Level of participation by the sponsoring agency or government in the value captureassociated with the project funding source (such as proceeds from tolls or other forms ofdirect user fees);

• Length of the contract;

• Substitution of availability payments or shadow tolls in lieu of direct user charges;• Extent of private sector surety requirements; and

• Mixture of greenfield and takeover projects.More variations are expected, particularly as political issues are being raised concerning thetakeover of existing toll roads for short-term budget relief and the extent of foreign involvementin PPP contracts as concessionaires or financiers.

A number of related public-private funding arrangements are being used to augment projectrevenues by tapping the value capture associated with economic development in the vicinity ofthe proposed or current transportation facility. These innovative funding and financingapproaches typically involve private entities which directly benefit from enhanced transportationaccessibility. Several of these PPP funding/financing approaches are described below.

Business Improvement Districts (BID)Business improvement districts assess properties located within a defined geographic area tofinance a variety of enhanced services in the area including security, maintenance, marketing,economic development, parking, transportation, and special events. In some cities, BIDs havecontributed to the financing of new or expanded transportation services in order to enhance theeconomic activity and growth in the district. The potential benefits of including BIDs intransportation infrastructure projects include providing access to property tax assessmentrevenues, increasing revenue diversification, creating partnerships with businesses and property

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 16 PPP Approaches

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (24)

owners within the district, and coordinating transportation services with other services providedin the BID.

Tax Increment Financing (TIF)Tax Increment Financing is a tool used by municipalities to help finance the redevelopment ofareas within a community through increased property taxes from the enhanced value of property(both developed and undeveloped) resulting from the implementation of infrastructure andservice improvements. TIFs use future increases in property tax revenues to finance currentinfrastructure investments (such as highway, transit, and other transportation facilities). A TIFdirectly relates infrastructure investments to increases in the value of existing property within thedistrict. A TIF can also encourage new development to further expand the tax base. Project debtservice is repaid through increased property tax revenues, provided the developmentmaterializes. The primary benefits of TIFs for transportation infrastructure funding includeproviding access to capital financing markets through a dedicated revenue stream for debtrepayment and growing public tax revenues without increasing tax rates.

Appendix A provides illustrations of a representative sample of the various types oftransportation PPP projects undertaken in the U.S. and around the world, including highways,bridges, tunnels, and transit rail lines. These projects are mostly large in scale and requiredsignificant contract administration skills by the public sponsoring agency and technologicalcapabilities by experienced project delivery teams.

POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF PPPs FOR TRANSPORTATION PROJECTSWhile each transportation project is unique in various ways, the use of PPPs to delivertransportation projects can offer a number of advantages to the sponsoring agency. The keyadvantage of PPPs for transportation projects is the ability to harness additional financialresources and operating efficiencies from the private sector to expedite development andpreservation of public use infrastructure. This can produce the benefits listed in Exhibit 7 on thefollowing page.

In considering the potential application of PPP approaches to public transportation, the primaryopportunities come from joint development, transit-oriented development, and multimodalproject development (also called a public-public-private partnership). Exhibit 8 lists potentialprimary and secondary benefits of transit-oriented development for public sector and privatesector partners, respectively.Realizing the benefits of partnering with the private sector requires a project of relative urgency,lack of adequate public resources to complete the project in a reasonable timeframe, and publicsponsor ability to develop and administer a flexible PPP contract agreement which represents awin-win situation for both public and private partners. It is unrealistic to expect the potentialadvantages resulting from a PPP to automatically turn an infeasible project into a feasibleproject. It is also unrealistic to expect the private sector to be attracted by projects that do nothave the potential to provide a reasonable rate of return on their investment in the project.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 17 PPP Approaches

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (25)

Exhibit 7 Potential Benefits of PPPs for Surface Transportation Projects

AdditionalResources

and Capacity

AcceleratedProjectDelivery

Reduced Costsand Increased

Efficiency

Transfer ofSelected Risksto the Private

Sector

Greater Access toTechnology and

Innovation

IncreasedAccountability

forPerformance

Leveragescarce public

resources

Consolidatesequentialfunctionsthrough

concurrentprocessing

Increasefunctional

coordination toenhance project

deliveryefficiency

Transfer projectcost, schedule,and quality risks

to private sector ifit can better

manage them

Promptly introduceand apply most cost-effective technology

to lower projectdelivery and

operating costs

Applyperformance-

based, notprescriptive orquantity-based

standards

Provide readyaccess to

additional staffand specializedexpertise on acost-effective,

as-neededbasis

Improvecoordination andcommunicationamong partners

with alignedincentives

Accelerateproject delivery

schedule toreduce potential

for increasedmaterial costsdue to inflation

Public sectorretains risks

associated withenvironmental

clearance,permitting, and

right-of-wayacquisition

Use assetmanagement toolsfor infrastructure

inventory, conditionassessment,tracking, and

reporting of assetpreservation to

reduce life-cyclecosts at definedlevels of service

Applyperformance-

based materialand

workmanshipwarranties

Expand accessto private

capital marketsfor debt and

equity toincrease

capability tomore promptly

financeprojects

Reducepotential for

claims and extrawork orderrequests

Apply businessbest practicesfrom domestic

and internationalindustry experts

with broadexposure toinnovative

approaches

Recognize risksfor both public

and privatesectors relating to

gaining public,political, andinstitutional

support

Use innovativetechnology that best

serves the publicand is desired by

user groups toimprove pricing andoperating efficiency

Applyperformance-

basedstandards,

requirements,and milestonesdefined in PPP

contract

Conservelimited publicdebt capacity

by using privatedebt and equity

in projectfinancing

Providemonetary

incentives forearly projectdelivery or

service initiation

Apply life-cycleasset

management,with greater

investment upfront for long-term savingsfrom reducedfrequency of

reconstructionor replacement

Avoid moralhazard risksrelating to

improper actionsor corruption in

procurement andperformance

reporting

Access specializedexpertise and

supporting technicaltools in such items

as tunneling,motorist alerts,maintenance of

traffic, and longer-lasting highways

Applyperformance-

based incentivesbased on project

completionschedule and

cost, or projecttraffic andrevenues

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 18 PPP Approaches

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (26)

Exhibit 8 Public and Private Sector Benefits of Transit-Oriented Development

Public Sector Primary Benefits Private Sector - Primary Benefits

• Increases in ridership • Higher land values

• Potential for lease payments or otherrevenues

• Higher rents on commercial orresidential development near transitfacilities

• Potential for dedicated tax revenue • Shared costs for building foundations

• Revitalized neighborhoods • Reduced requirements for parkingspaces

• Smart-growth development • More affordable housing opportunities

Public Sector Secondary Benefits Private Sector Secondary Benefits

• Reduced traffic congestion • Increased retail sales

• Increased property and sales taxrevenues

• Increased access to labor

• Reduced sprawl through smart growth • Reduced parking costs

• Reduced expenses for roads and otherinfrastructure

• Increased productivity of employeesnot delayed by traffic congestion

• Reduced crime and increased safety invicinity of transit facility

• Increased physical activity in vicinityof development near transit facilities

Source: Expanded from Robert Cervero, TCRP Report 102: Transit-Oriented Development inthe United States, TRB, 2004, pp.120-131.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 19 PPP Approaches

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (27)

4. CRITERIA TO DETERMINE PPP OPPORTUNITIES

Whether a surface transportation project is suitable for delivery as a PPP depends on a number offactors that relate to the legal and institutional environment within which the project will bedeveloped and the specific attributes of the project itself. As a partnership between publicsponsors and private providers, certain criteria are used by both public and private sectormembers of the PPP while some are applicable to one or the other partner. This sectiondiscusses the criteria public and private partners deem essential for entering into a PPP and fordetermining whether the partnership is successful.

PROJECT SUITABILITY CRITERIA FOR PPP PROJECT DELIVERYExperience from numerous transportation projects executed as PPPs suggest a number of criteriathat both public and private partners deem critical to assessing the suitability of a project fordevelopment using a PPP approach and the likelihood of success for the PPP. The criteria listedin Exhibit 9 below should be used from the beginning of the project planning process todetermine whether a project is suitable for a PPP and the kind of contract and project deliveryarrangements would be most appropriate to the project.

Exhibit 9 Key Criteria for Defining Projects as Candidates for Pursuit as a PPP

• Legal authority and stakeholder desire to use various PPP approaches

• Demonstrated transportation need congestion, safety, pollution, travel reliability• Sponsoring agency lacking resources to fund or deliver the project on its own

• Strong commitment by key stakeholders political leaders (project champion),public agency officials, facility users, and the general public

• Large and complicated project warranting substantial private participation andassumption of project risks generally over $500 million in construction costs

• Adequate funding potential tolls, availability payments, joint development, ROW• Strong partner relationships competence and trust among members of the PPP

• Level playing field for bidding teams unbiased procurement process

Exhibit 10 shows the four key prerequisites for undertaking projects using a PPP approachand the relative priority of each prerequisite. All four categories are important to the decisionprocess, but institutional support requires legal authority, which requires on-going politicalsupport, which will only remain as long as there is support from the public and privatestakeholders to the project. Key stakeholder groups include the general public, facility users,economic development interests, shippers, transit and environmental advocates, and thebusiness community.Public sponsoring agencies have their own requirements and priorities for determiningwhether to pursue a project through a PPP that include those in Exhibit 10 but extend to otherfactors. The same is true for private project delivery firms, as shown in Exhibits 11 and 12.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 20 PPP Criteria

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (28)

Exhibit 10 Key Prerequisites for Undertaking PPP Procurements

Public / MarketSupport

PoliticalChampions

LegalAuthority

InstitutionalCooperation

Critical transportationneeds unmet due to

shortage of available publicresources

Availability of one or moreelected leaders to

champion the projectusing PPP approachesand maintain support to

help overcome obstaclesas they develop duringproject development

State constitutional authorityto use PPP approaches fortransportation projects andthe ability to gain public or

legislative support to enact aconstitutional amendment if

constitutional language wouldotherwise prevent or restrict

the use of PPP approaches toexpedite delivery of neededtransportation infrastructure

and services

Cooperation of publicagency sponsors of surfacetransportation projects andtheir capability to managethe PPP procurement and

contract administrationfunctions involving highly

sophisticated projectdelivery teams

Public understanding ofhow surface transportationprojects are funded and the

precarious nature of thecurrent funding situation

Strong public support toencourage elected

officials to support andchampion PPP projectsthroughout development

and delivery

State legislative authority touse PPP approaches for

surface transportationprojects

Capability of public agencysponsors of surface

transportation projects toeffectively manage the

procurement and contractadministration functions for

PPP projects involvinghighly sophisticated privatefinance and delivery teams

Public understanding of thetradeoffs betweenexpediting needed

transportation projects byapplying PPP approachesor using traditional project

funding and deliveryapproaches

Extent to which proposedPPP approaches for aproject provide sharedvalue capture by both

public and privatepartners

Local legal authority to applyvarious PPP approaches to

local transportation initiatives,including both highway and

transit projects

Presence of a competitiveprivate sector market to

provide required servicesunder various PPP

approaches

Public support for PPPapproaches and the

funding sources needed tosupport these approaches,such as tolling and variable

user pricing

Degree to which privateprovider teams in a

project PPP aredominated by foreign-

based companies versusdomestic-based

companies

Ability of state laws to provideadequate confidentiality ofprivate partner proposals

while retaining transparencyin procurement process

Degree to which projectsponsor agencies feel

threatened or enabled bypartnering with privateproviders of finance,

development, O&M, and/orpreservation functions

Support from key usergroups that may feel their

competitive positionsthreatened by the

introduction of PPP deliveryand user pricing

approaches to fund theproject and manage

demand to avoidcongestion on the facility,

including truckers, shippers,and logistics firms

Perception of PPPs as atool of one political

ideology versus another,of innovation versus

tradition, or risk sharingversus risk transfer andthe relative strength of

the prevailing view

Breadth and flexibility of stateand local laws to provide

discretion by project sponsorsregarding the use of PPP

approaches and the terms ofPPP agreements

Cooperation of traditionalprogram institutions that

may feel their competitivepositions threatened by theintroduction of PPP deliveryapproaches to finance and

deliver projects

* Order of columns defines prioirty and prerequisites for successful PPP procurements indicated by arrows between column headings.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 21 PPP Criteria

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (29)

Exhibits 11 and 12 provide separate lists of criteria applicable to prospective public andprivate members of a PPP arrangement, respectively. These criteria are generally used byeach prospective partner to evaluate PPP opportunities for proposed projects.

Exhibit 11 Public Sector PPP Project Selection Criteria

• Enabling legislation in place• Urgent transportation need

• Political and institutional support• Lack of internal resources, staff/financial, to deliver project in a timely manner

• Leverage public resources and transfer cost/schedule risks to the private sector• Expedite schedule through access to capital markets and innovative project delivery

• Transfer cost, schedule, and quality risks to capable private partner• Increased cost-effectiveness through best practices and access to new technology

• Competitive market environment based on firms with proven experience• Capability to manage transparent procurement/contract administration processes

• Public accountability through monitoring of contract performance standards

Exhibit 12 Private Sector PPP Project Selection Criteria

• Enabling legislation in place• Pressing transportation need

• Reasonable development timeframe• Financially feasible (adequate funds to satisfy required rate of return on investment)

• Manageable risks consistent with responsibilities and rewards as reflected in contract• Supportive political climate

• Defined procurement path providing equal opportunity to all interested parties• Comprehensive market evaluation to assure reasonable traffic & revenue risks

• Commitment to public sector sponsorship of environmental clearance and permitting• Commitment by public sector acquisition of necessary rights-of-way

• Partnership philosophy demonstrated by project sponsor in flexible contract terms• Opportunity to apply innovative approaches to reduce project costs and risks

In reviewing both public sector and private sector selection criteria contained in Exhibits 11 and12, there is consistency in some areas while each side clearly has its own set of priorities. It isimportant for both sides to understand each other s priorities in evaluating projects as candidatesfor PPPs and determining whether to pursue them through some kind of partnering arrangement.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 22 PPP Criteria

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (30)

Exhibit 13 summarizes criteria used by prospective sponsoring agencies to determine if a projectis suitable for delivery as a PPP project, such as project scale and level of public need. If theresult is affirmative, the next set of decision factors help determine which type of projectdelivery and/or financing approach to pursue, including the development stage of the project, itsrisk profile, and the potential for funding from traditional and/or alternative sources.

Exhibit 13 Project-Based Criteria for Selecting PPP Approaches

Threshold Criteria for Considering PPPs Decision Factors for Selecting PPP Approach

Project Scale Public Demand Project Stage and RiskProfile

Project Revenue andFunding Potential

Project size in terms ofcost and financing

requirements - the higherthe cost the more likelythe private sector will be

needed to bridge thefinancing gap

Urgency of project tosatisfy transportation

mobility need

Preliminary conceptplanning favors joint

development and life-cyclePPP approaches that

maximize potential for costminimization and valuecapture maximization

Scarce public fundingsources to meet

transportation programbudgets are enhanced by

pooling multiple modalprogram resources

Project design andconstruction complexity -

the more complex thedesign and the more

sophisticated thefinancing the greater thepotential role of private

partners

Significant transportation-related economic

development potential

Public sector takesresponsibility for

environmental clearance,obtaining most permits, and

most right-of-wayacquisition, includingadvanced acquisition

PPPs enhance ability ofproject to secure adequate

financing and funding tosupport the project's

developmental based onuser pricing and/or

economic developmentvalue capture

Project functional scope(whether financingand/or O&M are

included) - the broaderthe more likely privatepartners can leverage

public resources to meetthe needs

Broad public support forPPP approach to projectdelivery, financing, and

funding approaches used

Design is at less than 30%to optimize best practice

input by PPP team

Legal authority must exist topermit sponsoring agency toengage in PPPs that include

use of private capitalfinancing

Capability of sponsoringpublic agency not

adequate to deliverproject by Itself in a

timely manner

Broad and sustainingpolitical support for PPPapproaches to leveragescarce public funds andexpedite project delivery

Post-constructionresponsibility for O&M and

preservation transferssignificant project

performance risk to thePPP team though O&M

contract or brownfield long-term concession lease

Projects with high initialcosts and long-range

revenue potential requirealternative financial

approaches which can bemore readily obtained

through a PPP arrangement

Low risk tolerance ofsponsoring publicagency for large,complex projects

Presence of project instate or localtransportation

improvement plans(STIPs or TIPs)

The greater the risks of theproject and the public

sponsor's aversion to riskthe more likely that a PPP

approach will be considered

Projects that lack financialfeasibility will not attractprivate sector interest -therefore sponsoring

agencies should not limitPPPs to the least feasible

projects

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 23 PPP Criteria

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (31)

AGENCY READINESS FOR PPPs

The readiness of state and local transportation agencies to use PPP approaches to transportationproject delivery can be inferred by several factors, including having the legal authority to usePPPs, institutional willingness to use design-build project delivery, and participation in variousdirect user charge initiatives under the FHWA s Value Pricing Pilot Program (VPPP). Thesefactors are important indicators of PPP potential, especially for private provider teams that wantassurance that the legal and institutional framework exists to enable the use of PPPs fortransportation projects. States where several or all of these factors currently exist are the mostlikely to consider PPPs to develop needed transportation projects.

The following three exhibits show the states with legal authority to use PPPs for transportationprojects, have the authority to use design-build project delivery, and have value pricing projectseither operating or planned under FHWA s VPPP. Exhibit 14 shows the 21 states and PuertoRico with current PPP legislation for transportation projects, plus three additional states withpending legislation. A number of other states are also considering possible legislative action toallow the use of PPPs for transportation projects, including New York, New Jersey, and Hawaii.

Exhibit 14 States with Legal Authority to Use PPPs for Transportation Projects

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 24 PPP Criteria

States with PPP legislation*

* Arizona and California PPP Authority limited to several pilot projects in certain cases.

Source: Nossaman Guthner Knox & Elliott. Data valid through April 2007

States with PPP legislation pending

AK- 2/4Alaska

Puerto Rico

States with PPP legislation*

* Arizona and California PPP Authority limited to several pilot projects in certain cases.

Source: Nossaman Guthner Knox & Elliott. Data valid through April 2007

States with PPP legislation pending

AK- 2/4Alaska

Puerto Rico

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (32)

Most states provide legislative authority to their transportation agencies to use the design-buildPPP approach to delivery various types of projects. Exhibit 15 shows that forty-two states, theDistrict of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands have the ability to delivertransportation projects using the DB project delivery approach. Fifteen of these states have orcurrently make extensive use of the DB approach to expedite projects and control costs bypassing much of the project risk for project engineering and construction to the DB team.

The significance of having DB authority is that most private members of PPPs desire the featuresdesign-build provides the project to help control costs and delivery schedules by integrating thedesign and construction functions. This helps them better manage project risks by ensuring thatconstructible design plans are completed before construction begins and that the constructionefforts comply with the performance-based specifications contained in the plans. Thereforestates with DB capability and experience are considered more likely to develop PPParrangements and have contract administration capability needed for a successful PPP project.

Exhibit 15 States with Design-Build Project Delivery Authority

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 25 PPP Criteria

Source: Design-Build Institute of America, April 2007. http://www.dbia.org/

AK- 2/4

HI- 0/2

number of DB projectsStates with few DBprojects

Alaska

Hawaii

States with significant

VI- 0/1District of Columbia

VI- 0/1Virgin Islands

* California – Transit agencies and certain cities and countiesIllinois – Regional Transportation AuthoritiesMassachusetts – authorized on a project-specific basisTexas – Comprehensive Development Agreements

VI- 0/1Puerto Rico

Source: Design-Build Institute of America, April 2007. http://www.dbia.org/

AK- 2/4

HI- 0/2

number of DB projectsStates with few DBprojects

Alaska

Hawaii

States with significant

VI- 0/1District of Columbia

VI- 0/1Virgin Islands

* California – Transit agencies and certain cities and countiesIllinois – Regional Transportation AuthoritiesMassachusetts – authorized on a project-specific basisTexas – Comprehensive Development Agreements

VI- 0/1Puerto Rico

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (33)

Another positive indicator of PPP interest and capability is a state s active participation inFHWA s Value Pricing Pilot Program, which promotes the use of innovative ways to reducecongestion while generating additional funds for transportation infrastructure programs. Inseeking ways to reduce traffic congestion, VPPP projects will also improve safety, reduceemissions, and lower fuel consumption.Each year project applications are sent to FHWA for review and certain projects are approved forVPPP grants. In 2005, fourteen states had eleven operating projects and seventeen projectsunder development, as shown in Exhibit 16 on the next page. Since then, thirty-nine additionalprojects that have been designated for VPPP grant funds, with the State of Pennsylvania joiningthe ranks of states shown in Exhibit 16 with VPPP-approved project grants. This brings the totalapproved VPPP grant applications for projects to sixty-seven as of March 2007. This meansgreater experience and exposure for operating and pricing strategies that can facilitate futurePPPs.5

As of April 2007, the Value Pricing Pilot Program included the following types of projects, listedin order of number of grants approved:

• Variable pricing on new highway lanes and bridges 20 projects

• Variable pricing of existing tolled facilities 14 projects• Conversion of HOV lanes to HOT lanes 8 projects

• Regional pricing networks 9 projects• Usage-based vehicle charging 8 projects

• Cash-out strategies for those electing to use alternatives to the single-occupantautomobile 3 project

• Parking pricing 2 projects• Cordon area tolling 2 projects

• Truck-only toll facilities 1 projectParticipation in VPPP projects demonstrates a willingness of the state to embrace innovativemethods to generate additional program revenues and reduce congestion. States most active inthe program include the following five states, which have a combined forty-five approved VPPPprojects, representing sixty-seven percent of the total projects approved by April 2007:

• California 14 projects

• Florida 10 projects• Texas 10 projects

• Minnesota 6 projects• Washington State 5 projects

5 Sources: http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/tolling_pricing/value_pricing/quarterlyreport/qtr1rpt07/index.htm

and http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pressroom/fhwa0703.htm

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 26 PPP Criteria

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (34)

Exhibit 16 States Participating in FHWA s Value Pricing Pilot Program in 2005

Source: Issues and Options for Increasing the Use of Tolling and Pricing to Finance TransportationImprovements, AECOM Consult study for FHWA’s Office of Transportation Policy Studies, June 2006

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 27 PPP Criteria

Operating Projects1. Express Lanes on SR-91 (Orange County,

CA)2. HOT Lanes on I-10 (Houston, TX)3. Variable pricing (Lee County, FL bridges)4. HOT Lanes on I-15 (San Diego, CA) (HOT

Lanes extension under study)5. Variable tolls (New Jersey Turnpike, NJ)6. HOT Lanes on US 290 (Houston, TX)7. Variable tolls (Port Authority Interstate

vehicle crossings, NY and NJ)8. Peak pricing on the San Joaquin Hills

Toll Road (Orange County, CA)9. HOT Lanes on I-394 (Minneapolis, MN)10. Variable tolls (Illinois Tollway System)11. HOT Lanes on I-25/US 36 (Denver, CO)

Projects Under DevelopmentA – HOT Lanes on I-40 (North Carolina)B – HOT Lanes on 217 (Portland, OR)C – HOT Lanes on LBJ Freeway (Dallas, TX)D – HOT Lanes on I-95 (Miami, FL)E – HOT Lanes on C-470 (Denver, CO)F – HOT Lanes on I-580 and I-680 (Alameda Co., CA)G – HOT Lanes on I-495 (Virginia/Maryland)H – HOT Lanes on I-95 and I-395 (Virginia)I – HOT Lanes on Loop 1 – MOPAC (Austin, TX)J – HOT Lanes on SR 167 (Seattle, WA)K – Cordon tolling (Fort Myers Beach, FL)L – Cordon tolling in central New York City (NY)M – FAIR Lanes (Alameda County, CA)N – HOT Lanes/FAIR Lanes/Truck-Only Toll Lanes

(Atlanta, GA)O – HOT Lanes in Median of Route 1 (Santa Cruz, CA)P – Q-Jumps (Lee County, FL)Q – Cordon tolling (San Francisco, CA)

Legend:

Projects Operating

Projects Under Development

4

2

6

9

1

8

5

A

B

C

D

EF

G

K

L

M

N

P3

7

I

H

J

10

O

Q 11

Legend:

Projects Operating

Projects Under Development

4

2

6

9

1

8

5

A

B

C

D

EF

G

K

L

M

N

P3

7

I

H

J

10

O

Q 11

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (35)

STATES MOST LIKELY TO SPONSOR SURFACE TRANSPORTATION PPPsExhibit 17 shows the twelve states actively participating in the Value Pricing Pilot Program as ofthe beginning of 2007 which also have enabling legislation for PPPs and design-buildapproaches to surface transportation project delivery. These three factors are leading indicatorsof state readiness for using alternative, innovative approaches to expedite their transportationprograms and projects currently slowed due to a shortage of available funding.

Exhibit 17 States with PPP Legislation, Design-Build Authority, and VPPP Projects

Given the combination of legal authority and willingness to innovate, the twelve states shown inExhibit 17 represent the most likely to incorporate innovative financing and project deliveryapproaches associated with PPPs in their surface transportation programs and projects. Howeverrecent events suggest the addition of Nevada, Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Louisiana,Mississippi, and Alabama to this list the last three largely a consequence of the transportationreconstruction and replacement needs resulting from the devastating effects of Hurricane Katrinaon the infrastructure along the Gulf Coast in 2005.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 28 PPP Criteria

Source: Nossaman Guthner Knox & Elliott; FHWA and FTA Data. Data valid through April 2007.

States with PPP legislation, DB authority, and VPPP projects

Source: Nossaman Guthner Knox & Elliott; FHWA and FTA Data. Data valid through April 2007.

States with PPP legislation, DB authority, and VPPP projects

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (36)

5. PROGRAM FRAMEWORK FOR DEVELOPING AND MANAGINGTRANSPORTATION PPPs

To successfully develop and implement public-private partnership projects requires a supportiveand capable institutional environment within the sponsoring agency. An effective PPP programprovides an underlying framework for how the agency will administer PPP projects and shouldbe in place before launching into procurement of PPP projects. A PPP program involves thedevelopment of policies, procedures, documentation, and resources to guide development andmanagement of PPP projects. These program pre-requisites will enable the sponsoring agency tocarry out the necessary contract procurement and administration of PPP projects to ensure theirsuccessful implementation. These requirements are discussed in this section.

INSTITUTIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND ISSUESOnce the transportation agency has established a PPP program, it can more effectively proceed todevelop and implement PPP projects that offer the potential to cost-effectively expedite neededtransportation projects by involving the private sector to a greater extent than in the past. Theseare a number of requirements for transportation agencies to meet to have an effective PPPprogram. Among these, the most significant requirements are listed in Exhibit 18 below.

Exhibit 18 Transportation Agency Requirements for an Effective PPP Program

• PPP program development and refinement policy, authority, and responsibility

• Program management strategic planning, guidance, monitoring, evaluation. Andreporting processes

• Resource management organization, staffing, and procedures

• Technical capabilities

− Legal and regulatory review and analysis capabilities

− Innovative procurement and contract administration techniques

− Innovative funding approaches and financial management practices• Project prioritization and selection criteria and processes

• RFP development and/or bidder evaluation processes

− Solicited and/or unsolicited proposals

− Brownfield (existing) and/or greenfield (new) projects• Legal assessment of bidding process, bids, and contracts

• Effective contract administration and project oversight to ensure accountability

A transportation agency should consider the key issues framed in terms of the five questionslisted in Exhibit 19 to successfully develop a PPP program.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 29 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (37)

Exhibit 19 Key Issues to Consider in Developing a Transportation Agency PPP Program

• What is the institutional context for the PPP program?− Focus of PPP initiative (e.g., mega projects, inadequate funding, strong private interest)− Primary reasons to consider PPPs for project/asset delivery− Relationship of PPP approaches to the agency s mission and responsibilities

• Does the sponsoring agency have the statutory and regulatory authority for PPPs?− Review existing statutes and regulations to assess authority for PPP projects− Assess legal context and capability for PPP project proposals solicited and unsolicited− Eligibility for PPP delivery by project type based on project selection criteria

• What are the potential public and private partner responsibilities, risks, and returns?− Project development financing operations - preservation− Toll schedule− Asset ownership− Contract duration and renewal potential

• Does the sponsoring agency have the capabilities and resources to develop andmanage a PPP program and the resulting projects?− Organizational placement and structure− In-house staffing levels and qualifications− Specialized staff resources

• What kind of procurement approach should be used to select qualified PPP teams?− Procurement method§ solicited unsolicited§ one-step two-step (prequalification leading to short list)§ prequalification process criteria§ performance-based versus prescriptive standards

− Selection basis§ project price level of third party financing other considerations§ best value lowest responsible bidder lowest bid

− Contract type§ DB, DBOM, DBOM-F, BOT, long-term concession lease§ performance-based versus prescription based§ project delivery service levels asset conditions§ shared risks shared rewards§ duration renewal potential

− Extent and sources of competition for PPP assignments§ local§ national§ international

− Contract administration responsibility and approach§ quality control quality assurance

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 30 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (38)

LEGAL CONSIDERATIONSAmong the most important considerations by prospective public and private sector partners in atransportation project PPP is whether there exists sufficient legal authority and flexibility to usealternative PPP approaches to deliver surface transportation projects. Without adequate legalauthority and flexibility, PPPs cannot be used to expedite delivery of a state s transportationprogram.

Legal Issues Related to Transportation PPPsA number of legal issues should be addressed by enabling state and/or local legislation whendeveloping the capability to use PPPs for transportation projects. These are summarized inExhibit 20.

Exhibit 20 Statutory-Based Legal Issues Associated with Transportation PPPs

• Legal capacity of parties and legal requirement of sponsor to provide services

• Ability of private firms to be more involved in infrastructure development andcontrol, including the nature and extent of participation by foreign firms

• Existence and legal basis of cost recovery and tolling (if applicable)

• Authority to regulate toll rates, exemptions to tolling, and services

• Dispute resolution and liability provisions

• Competition and anti-trust regulations

• Avoiding conflicts of interest among private and public parties to a PPP

• Special provisions associated with use of Federal funds Davis-Bacon, Buy-America, Section 13(c) of the Federal Transit Act, etc.

• Public sector borrowing restrictions/debt limitations

• Tax and accounting liabilities

• Adequacy of procurement and selection procedures

• Contract provisions and surety requirements

• Property and intelligent property laws protecting proprietary technologies andknow-how

• Authority of other government entities over infrastructure assets and accessrights

• Property issues of land acquisition condemnation, use, and disposal

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 31 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (39)

Given the many legal considerations associated with PPPs, it is suggested that PPP-authorizingstatutes should allow transportation agencies the following capabilities:

• Bundle a wide range of services from pre-development through long-term operations;• Allow various project delivery systems, including DB, DBOM, DBFO and concessions;

• Use qualifications-based procurement, such as two-stage best value procurements;• Apply selection criteria that result in the choice of the best developer able to provide the

greatest value to the project sponsor;• Use alternative forms of financial security; and• Negotiations with private partners during early planning stages of project development.

Those legal issues most likely to be addressed during the contract negotiation process aresummarized in Exhibit 21.

Exhibit 21 Negotiation-Based Legal Provisions of Transportation PPP Contracts

• Administrative coordination

• Adequacy of oversight and monitoring procedures

• Ability and restrictions over transfer of private sector contract duties to otherparties

• Contract re-negotiation, re-financing, hand-back provisions, and assignment ofrights

• Provisions regarding the ability of the public sector or other parties to build orexpand competing facilities

• Treatment of windfall profits due to traffic growth or congestion pricing

• Public control or limitations on private refinancing of project debt

• Currency and profit repatriation rules

• Authority over advertising or facility branding rights and treatment of proceeds

• Ability to provide guarantees

• Changes in design standards or construction specifications during development

• Shifts in public policy towards PPPs or technology changes that impact projectviability

Among the legal issues listed in the two exhibits above, those listed in Exhibit 22 deserveparticular attention given their potential influence over the viability of a PPP approach for aparticular project from both the public sponsor and private provider perspectives.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 32 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (40)

Exhibit 22 Key Legal Considerations in Developing Surface Transportation PPPs

• Procurement methodologies− Acceptance of solicited or unsolicited proposals− Selection criteria, such as traditional low-bid or best value

• Surety bonding requirements− Level of bonding requirements− Application of financial security requirements to some or all private partners

− Application of surety bond requirements to more than construction-relatedfunctions included in the PPP contract

• Flexibility in project delivery process− Level of responsibility and risk that the private partner can assume− Opportunity to apply innovative alternative approaches that provide comparable or

better performance more cost-effectively− Breadth of functions that can be performed by the private partner, beyond design,

construction, and construction management and inspection− Ability for private partners to share in the project s revenue stream or value capture

commensurate with their level of responsibility, risk, and investment

• Applicability of federal statutory and regulatory requirements− Labor protection (Davis-Bacon Act6/Section 13(c) of the Federal Transit Act 7)

− Buy America Act 8 restrictions on buying materials from firms outside the U.S.− Environmental clearance and permitting requirements

− Flexibility allowed by FHWA s SEP-15 Program and FTA s PPP Pilot Program

State Enabling Legislation for Surface Transportation PPPsAs noted in Section 4, one of the most important catalysts for the use of PPPs by state and/orlocal transportation agencies is passage of enabling legislation granting these agencies statutorypermission to form public-private partnership agreements to delivery infrastructure facilities andservices. Twenty-one states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico have already enactedlegislation enabling the use of PPPs for transportation projects, as shown earlier in Exhibit 14.Appendix B provides a summary of the key provisions of the enabling PPP legislation for thesetwenty-one states and Puerto Rico, plus the proposed PPP enabling legislation for Louisiana.

6 40 U.S.C. Section 276a et seq.7 Now codified at 49 U.S.C. 5333(b).8 49 CFR Parts 661 and 663.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 33 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (41)

The degree to which partnerships have been enacted under these acts varies greatly, however, inrelation to the number and nature of agreements permitted under each statute. A key distinctionis whether solicited proposals, unsolicited proposals, or both are enabled. In some cases actsapply only to particular types of facilities, such as toll highways or toll bridges, or specify thelevel of government or agency types permitted to partner. Others are established as pilotlegislation and limit the number of partnerships permitted. For example, the Commonwealth ofMassachusetts enacted PPP legislation to permit only one project to use the DBOM approachfinanced through a 63-20 public-benefits corporation for rehabilitating Route 3 north of Bostonto the New Hampshire state line. Some bills have been ineffective vehicles for public-privatepartnerships given provisions that create risk and uncertainty sufficient to deter potential privatesector construction, design, and/or financing firms from partnering under the statute. Theseinclude initial PPP legislation in Washington State and California.

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has published a study of the state PPP enablingstatutes identifying key elements for highway projects.9 Most of the same elements would applyto transit projects. In addition, USDOT has published in draft form model PPP legislation forstates to consider.10 These documents provide useful insights for states considering eitheradoption of comprehensive PPP legislation or amendments to their existing enabling statutes andregulations regarding the use of alternative project development, financing, delivery, and/oroperations.

Enabling Legislation for Transit PPPsIn the case of prospective transit project sponsors seeking to use PPP approaches, the question ofwhether a state or local transit agency can procure a project using a PPP approach is firstgoverned by state law. The laws of states noted in Exhibit 14 allow varying levels ofparticipation by the private sector in transportation projects.11 In addition, authorization incertain states is limited to specific agencies and therefore might not be available to transitauthorities given their regional or local focus. Hence transit agencies in many states aregoverned by separate statutes or local ordinances. As a result there are still many state and localtransit agencies with no current legal capacity to apply PPPs as an alternative to traditionalapproaches to project delivery, finance, and operations.

PROCUREMENT CONSIDERATIONSThere are many types of PPP arrangements involving different roles, responsibilities, risks, andrewards for the public and private partners participating in a transportation project. However, formost PPP approaches, there are certain activities that comprise the implementation and executionphases that are generally common among them. These are listed below in Exhibit 23, whichprovides an overview of a typical PPP project development effort.

9 http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ppp/legis_key_elements.pdf.10 http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ppp/legis_model.pdf. It should be noted that FHWA’s web page specifically advises that the modellegislation is provided for informational purposes only and that it should not be construed as the policy of USDOT or FHWA.11 See Study Deliverable 2, Literature Review of Public-Private Partnerships for Transit Capital Projects in the United States, Section1.C.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 34 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (42)

Exhibit 23 Overview of PPP Project Development Process

• Identification of possible PPP approaches and prospective private providers

• Organizational development - roles and responsibilities of designated internalteam and knowledgeable external support resources

• Internal due diligence/evaluation of project as a candidate for PPP arrangement

• Pre-marketing/pre-procurement to guide process and gain private sector insights

• Transparent marketing/procurement to assure equity and future accountability

• Close transaction/contracting process with fully understanding of terms and theirimplications for project costs, schedule, quality, financial returns, and risk taking

• Transition to delivery team involving public and private entities with definedresponsibilities and risks

• Project execution - public sector and private sector roles and responsibilities

• Partner accountability based on contract terms

Certain of the activities listed in Exhibit 23 pre-date the project PPP implementation processwhile others begin and end during different phases of PPP project delivery. Each of these stepsand the determination of which partner should take responsibility for the action or ifresponsibility is to be shared should be based on the following factors, which are discussed morefully below:

• The procurement approach(s) and types of projects to be considered in the PPP program;• The nature and scope of the project under consideration for possible delivery as a PPP;

• The functional capabilities of the sponsoring agency to carry out the project;• The competitive availability of competent private providers for the public sponsor to

partner with; and• The duration of the partnership relative to the life-cycle of the resulting facility.

Exhibit 24 summarizes the key issues to be addressed by sponsors of transportation PPPs duringthe procurement and contract negotiation processed, grouped into four categories, includingpublic interest and perceptions, transportation network coordination, and capability of thesponsoring agency to administer these processes.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 35 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (43)

Exhibit 24 Key Issues During PPP Procurement and Negotiation Processes

Public InterestConcerns

Public PerceptionIssues

Transportation NetworkCoordination Concerns

Administrative CapabilityIssues

Setting of toll ratesand schedule/basis of

future increases

Public sponsor agency outreachand communication to the public

on nature and impacts of aproposed PPP project and its

contract terms

Integration of individuallyoperated PPP-developed oroperated facilities within a

regional transportation system

Capabilities of specializedresources to develop,

negotiate, and administer abalanced PPP contract either

resident to or retained bysponsor agency

Control over ultimatelevel of toll rates

Ability of public sponsor agencyto share in project proceeds

beyond acceptable rate of returnto the private sector partners

Alignment of public mobilityand economic development

goals with private profit goals

Existence of legal authority toenter into PPP contracts for

surface transportation projects

Acceptable limits onrates of return on

private sectorinvestment

Rationale for instituting directuser charges, such as tolls orvariable pricing, as part of the

PPP arrangement

Coordination andcommunication between

surface transportation agenciesand the private partnersinvolved in project PPPs

regarding operational andpricing of surface

transportation facilities within aregion

Adequacy and transparency ofprocurement framework to

protect the public interest whileproviding equal opportunity to

prospective private firms/teams

Responsibility for andtreatment of windfall

profits or losses

Where tolling is imposed,whether there is a non-priced

alternative and theconsequences of not applying

pricing to the project in terms ofproject delivery schedule and

cost

Integration of PPP projectfacilities with other

infrastructure and servicecomponents of the regional

transportation system

Ability to identify and avoidconflicts of interest amongpartners to PPP contract,

especially during procurementand selection processes

Uses of excessrevenues or proceedsfrom long-term leases

Whether and how projectproceeds are focused on the

transportation facility or networkaffected by the PPP when direct

user charges are applied

Full accounting for compliancewith planning, environmental

clearance, and permittingrequirements during project

development process

Suitable contractadministration process and

staff to ensure terms of PPPcontract are adhered to by all

partners

Control over nature,extent, and frequency

of refinancing

Ability of responsible publicentity to protect the public

interest while respecting theprivate sector's rate of return

requirements

Ability to grant flexible stagingof environmental clearance,permitting, and right-of-wayacquisition activities as the

project proceeds, consistentwith NEPA and otherFederal/state/local

requirements

Existence of continuousperformance measurement

and reporting process to holdPPP partner accountable for

compliance with contractobligations

Control over transferof private partnerresponsibilities or

involvement in PPPcontract to other

private entities not partof original team

Degree of foreign involvement inPPP and foreign control over

project proceeds

Ability to ensure that projectproceeds are used to enhancetransportation mobility in the

area served by the PPP projectwhere user charges are applied

Continuity of public sponsoragency staff to oversee

development and execution ofPPP contract terms

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 36 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (44)

Potential Need for Specialized ResourcesA key consideration for public agencies preparing to procure a project using PPP approaches thatinvolve sophisticated technical and financial techniques is to obtain the services of firms or retainin-house personnel that offer specialized expertise in these techniques and how to analyze themwithin the context of the PPP project at issue. Given the high value of many PPP projects andthe potential for significant value capture by the private sector, the public agency will likely finditself negotiating with specialists that have a high degree of experience in these techniques.Such specialized personnel would be prohibitively expensive to retain on the public side of thenegotiations on a full-time basis as in-house staff. Therefore most public agencies sponsoringPPP projects should include firms or individuals with comparable expertise as part of their PPPprocurement support and contract negotiating team on an as-needed basis. This will increase thepotential for arriving at a fair contract agreement that balances the needs of both the publicagency and private partner, while ultimately protecting the public interest.

Procurement ApproachesOne of the key policy decisions facing sponsors of PPPs is whether to allow unsolicitedproposals in the process, as is allowed under the Virginia Public Private Transportation Act(PPTA) of 1995, or limit PPP bids to only those that respond to projects specifically solicited bythe sponsoring agency. Unsolicited proposals for a PPP project result from a concept developedby a private consortium and submitted directly to a public agency outside of the normal bidsolicitation process. Key features of unsolicited proposals are listed below.

• Opportunity for advance projects not included in traditional transportation plans byapplying innovative, often unique approaches;

• Opportunity to beat the competition to the starting gate and define the agenda in terms ofproject scope and approach; and

• High risk for the initial proposer since there is no guarantee the initiator will end upwinning the project after the concept subsequently undergoes a formal solicitationprocess prompted by the receipt of the initial unsolicited proposal, provided there isadequate time provided to allow competing teams to prepare their own proposedapproaches to the project.

Solicited proposals for PPP projects are the result of the normal bid solicitation process, wherebythe sponsoring agency defines the projects to be procured in each bidding cycle based onprioritized needs as defined in the short-range transportation plan. Key features of solicitedproposals include the following:

• Preferred by many public agencies since it provides them with more control of the projectsolicitation process instead of diverting scarce resources to react to bids that often seek tocircumvent the competitive procurement process;

• More consistent with the results of agency transportation planning efforts that involvepublic and private inputs in a more transparent process;

• Primary source of PPP project opportunities in the future since there is a greaterlikelihood of the project going forward due to its inclusion in the vetted transportationplanning process; and

• Level of competition for solicited requests for bids will depend on project size and risks.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 37 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (45)

Preferred Project Categories for Certain PPP ApproachesAnother policy issue to be addressed by both sponsors and respondents to PPP projectsolicitations is whether the purpose of the project is to merely change the responsibility fortaking care of existing infrastructure assets or to develop new infrastructure assets. The firstcategory is called a brownfield project, in which a private consortium assumes responsibilityfor existing transportation infrastructure assets through a long-term lease agreement with apotential up-front payment to the agency sponsor/owner. Recent mega-transactions have beendominated by long-term leases of existing tolled assets, including the Chicago Skyway, IndianaToll Road, and Pocahontas Parkway.The key features of a brownfield project are listed below:

• Lower traffic, revenue, environmental, and construction risks;• Opportunity to increase toll rates much more quickly that the public sector;

• Able to introduce new technology to eliminate tolling queues;• Significant potential for public sector to undervalue asset to the benefit of the private

concessionaire; and• Limited number of candidate brownfield projects.

The second category of project is called a greenfield project, in which a private consortiumuses a PPP approach to develop and operate new transportation infrastructure assets through along-term contract. Early greenfield PPP projects occurred in California and Virginia. Morerecent greenfield PPP projects are taking place in California (South Bay Expressway near SanDiego) and Texas (TTC-35).Key features of a greenfield project include the following:

• Higher traffic, revenue, construction, environmental, and financial risks;• Highly prized by transportation agencies seeking added infrastructure capacity;

• Opportunity to apply life-cycle asset management to significantly lower the total costs ofthe facility from concept to disposal; and

• Large number of potential greenfield projects, including adding congestion-priced newcapacity to existing highways at lower risks than entirely new alignment.

The decision to pursue projects through unsolicited or solicited proposals, or as a brownfield orgreenfield project, depends on the preference of the sponsoring agency, the opportunitypresented by the specific project being considered, and the interest and willingness of privatefirms to join in a partnership with the public sponsor under any of these procurement approachesor project categories.

Financial Analysis ConsiderationsIn analyzing prospective transportation PPP projects, it is important for both public and privatesector partners to determine the financial criteria for evaluating the project and the assumptionsthat underlay the financial analysis to determine project feasibility from financial perspective.Potential bases for financial evaluation depend on the perspectives of each partner. Publicpartners look primarily at the ability of the project cash flow to cover the full costs of the projectover time, including the costs of operations and maintenance, debt service, various reserve orcoverage funds, long-term preservation costs, and capital expansion costs (if needed).Transportation PPP User Guidebook 38 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (46)

Private partners want to ensure that the project can provide a reasonable return on investedcapital, whether debt or equity, net of design and construction, operation and maintenance,reserve or coverage funds, tax costs, and any sharing of revenue proceeds from the project.Therefore the results of private financial analyses for PPP projects focus on the Internal Rate ofReturn (IRR) on invested capital and/or the Net Present Value (NPV) of the net proceeds fromthe project over the term of the contract. Projects which provide an IRR greater than that whichthe financial community can obtain by investing its capital funds elsewhere are consideredviable, as are projects with a positive NPV.

Public sector sponsors of PPPs are becoming increasingly interested in the financial returns fromPPPs given the potential for some deals to generate windfall profits far above the purported ratesof return required by the private sector to consider a project financially feasible. The challengeis how to balance the financial risk-taking by private partners financing or helping to finance aproject through a PPP, which may not achieve minimum rates of return. More recent PPPsinvolving private financing are introducing revenue-sharing based on levels of rates of return oninvested capital achieved from the project, with increased proportions of project revenues goingto the public sponsor as the project IRR reaches greater levels, such as the Pocahontas ParkwayPPP refinancing deal. The most recent deals have including revenue-sharing between the publicand private partners starting when the project opens, such as the Texas State Highway 130 PPPconcession. With revenue-sharing the public partners retain a financial interest in the success ofthe PPP project, which limits the potential for the private partners to earn windfall profits.Revenue sharing generally reduces the total value of the deal to the private sector andconsequently the up-front payment a concessionaire may be willing to provide the sponsoringagency for a long-term concession lease.Typical issues associated with the financial analysis of transportation PPP projects include:

• Assumed inflation rates on costs and interest rates on debt• Length of contract term affects value of PPP deal and ownership status of lease12

• Required debt coverage ratios and level of reserve funds• Treatment of risks range of outcomes

• Taxable versus non-taxable debt and equity timing issue• Transparency public availability of private sector project financial information

Other financial issues relate to the use of IRR and NPV calculations to determine the value of along-term concession lease or the profits from a PPP involving financing by the private partner.Both calculations depend on assumptions regarding the future level of background inflation,which may not transpire as projected. In the case of NPV calculations, the results becomeunusable beyond a twenty-year contract term due to the declining value of project costs andrevenues that far into the future due to the effects of inflation. Long-term contracts of fifty ormore years are even more difficult to project financial results, which makes revenue-sharing arisk sharing strategy for both public and private partners to a long-term PPP involving financing possibly with both the public and private sector participating in the financing arrangements.

12 IRS rules require lease contracts of 50 years or more for the lessee to be considered the effective operating owner, therebygranting the lessee the ability to take depreciation tax credit against the value of the asset. This suggests PPP legislation grant PPPcontract term at least up to 50 years to maximize value to the public sponsors of long-term concession leases.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 39 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (47)

Other financial concerns relate to the basis for determining project IRR or NPV values and thesource of the financial data upon which these calculations are based. If the private partners to aPPP collect and retain control over project revenue proceeds, including toll revenues andfinancial transaction fees collected during the term of the contract, it is uncertainty whether theinformation is a complete or accurate representation of the financial status of the project. Wherethe private sector retains control of project revenues and this information is used to determineIRR thresholds for revenue sharing, the asymmetrical nature of this financial information canraise questions about the veracity of the results. Revenue-sharing arrangements require that thepublic sector have access to a project s full financial records for audit purposes to ascertain theirauthenticity.

Demonstrating Value for MoneyAnother important consideration in judging PPP project proposals is a concept known as Valuefor Money (VfM). This concept refers to the extent to which the proposed PPP approach offersgreater value to the sponsoring agency than the traditional approach. This analytical tool is oftenused to determine the project cost savings of a PPP approach paid for with availability paymentsor shadow tolls by the sponsoring agency, instead of through proceeds from direct user charges(such as tolls). To determine Value for Money for using an alternative project deliveryapproach, the sponsoring agency needs to define the project scope in advance to the extent that arealistic determination of project requirements, costs and revenues (where appropriate) are likelyto be. This may involve the following actions:

• Develop greater understanding of project geotechnical and site conditions throughadvanced reconnaissance;

• Advance project design to the point where there is a clear understanding of the keyattributes of the project design and functional characteristics;

• Perform advanced value engineering to ensure the most cost-effective design parametersare considered;

• Revise assumptions typically used to estimate traffic volume and revenue potential,especially the possible size and frequency toll rate changes when tolling is involved toreflect current fiscal concerns; and

• Recognize the risks inherent in the inflationary effects on the costs of project materials.

This information can then be used to develop a comparative basis for assessing whether a PPPapproach or submitted proposal offers sufficient advantages to the sponsoring agency. The moreinformation the sponsoring agency has to judge competing responses to the RFP against eachother and to more traditional approaches using varying levels of in-house responsibilities willhelp to ensure a more informed basis for determining how to proceed in the use of privateprovider services and what kind of PPP approach most benefits the public interest. This does notnecessarily mean advancing the project to the 30 percent design stage before developing theRequest for Proposals for the project as a possible PPP. To gain greater opportunity for morecost-effective plans, projects taken to the 10 percent to 15 percent stage of design may besufficient. This depends on the type, size, and complexity of the project.Public and private entities engaged in PPPs can achieve greater Value for Money by:

• Applying business best practices to expedite the project and lower its cost;

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 40 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (48)

• Providing higher quality design, construction, and inspection up front that saves costsover the long-term; and

• Using life-cycle asset management to reduce the frequency and costs of preservation.

Increased value or project cost savings from these kinds of strategies can range from 5% to 66%of total life-cycle costs, depending on the best practices used, the integration of project phases,and the extent to which life-cycle total asset management is applied. The Value for Moneyestimate will depend to some extent on how the sponsoring agency treats direct and indirect costsof the project.From the private sector perspective, the details of the estimates of financial benefits to the privatesector concessionaire for a long-term lease agreement is typically not fully disclosed andtherefore not made part of the Value for Money determination. This may raise questionsregarding the potential for windfall profits to be earned by the private concessionaire, difficultyin holding private partners accountable for project financial reporting, and public interestconcerns where transparency in the procurement and development of PPPs is required.

Bidder PrequalificationIf a two-step solicitation process is used for project team selection (pre-qualification thenproposal submission), the first step will identify and pre-qualify those prospective bidders thathave the greatest potential for developing and delivering the proposed project as a public-privatepartnership using innovative approaches that offer high value for money and an effectivepartnering relationship with the agency sponsor. The first step could be as simple as allowingonly those firms already on the agency s pre-qualification list to receive a Request for Proposalfor the proposed PPP project. However, since there is little domestic experience with PPPprojects in most states, this approach may overlook highly qualified firms that are not on theagency s pre-qualification list, particularly if the agency has not sponsored PPP projects before.Bidder prequalification often begins by issuing a request for a Letter of Interest (LOI) from eachprospective bidder or bidding team (if already organized) to indicate whether or not they areinterested in competing for the project as a PPP. The LOI request can also be used to ask forinformation on the firm and its relevant qualifications to perform the project as a PPP. Thiscould be followed by a formal Request for Qualifications (RFQ) from all or selected firms thatresponded to the LOI.The LOI and RFQ may be preceded by a fact-finding process in which prospective firms areinvited to participate in an information-sharing meeting or workshop to share insights regardingthe project and the anticipated PPP procurement process. Meeting topics typically include:

• The proposed project description, available public funding, and obtainable data on theproject, including any preliminary planning or preliminary design studies;

• What the agency is seeking from bidders;• What types(s) of PPP approaches will be considered;

• Responsibilities, level of risks, and value capture required/desired by the private sector;• How to structure the request for proposals; and• What is considered a reasonable timeframe for proposal preparation.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 41 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (49)

Following the workshop meeting, the sponsoring agency may also provide the opportunity forindividual one-on-one meetings between representatives of the sponsoring agency and interestedfirms to further discuss specific ideas and concepts regarding the proposed project and ways toapproach its procurement and delivery.

Exhibit 25 displays sections a typical Request for Qualifications that may accompany or followthe Letter of Interest request.

Exhibit 25 Sample Components of a PPP Project Request for Qualifications

• Introduction to RFQ document

• Project background - current conditions and rationale for project

• Project description - scope and schedule

• Purpose of pre-qualification

• Pre-qualification process - objectives, process, and schedule

• Conditions, terms, and limitations

• Statement of qualifications - contents and format of managerial, financial, andtechnical capabilities and resources

• Evaluation process - procedures, roles, criteria, and scoring method

• Receipt and security of statements of qualifications

• Approved bidder s list

• Notification process

• Annexes - certifications, representations, required forms, and sample scoring form

On the next page, Exhibit 26 provides a representative listing of criteria an agency mightconsider for evaluating the responses to the RFQ so that a smaller list of pre-qualified firms orteams can be selected to receive Requests for Proposals (RFP). The preparation and issuance ofRFPs should be done after the following items have been finalized by the agency sponsoring theproject:

• Project scope;

• PPP approaches to be allowed;

• Evaluation criteria;

• Remaining steps in the PPP project procurement process; and

• Schedule for completing the procurement and selection process leading to a Notice toProceed (NTP).

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 42 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (50)

Exhibit 26 Sample Pre-Qualification Evaluation Criteria

• Relevancy and extent of prior project experience by team members - size, nature,and complexity of prior relevant projects completed by team members

• Satisfaction of prior clients used as team references

• Financial capability and capacity of the team

• Adequacy of project management capability and experience

• Quality assurance capabilities and programs

• Relevancy and extent of specific technical and financial experience and expertiseof designated key staff members of submitting team

• Adequacy/availability of key staff to perform the project in proposed timeframe

• Completeness and timeliness of statement of qualifications submission

• Inclusion and proper execution of all required certifications and representationsfor members of submitting team and key staff

• Submission of audited financial statements for core team members for prior fiveyears

• Availability of required net working capital

• Net worth of submission team− Confirmation of bonding capability

− Bank and surety references− Legal standing of team members

For unsolicited proposals, this process would be significantly condensed since there is already asubmitted proposal which serves as the basis for comparison, provided the proposed project isone the responsible agency wished to pursue even though it is not on the short-term approved listof planned transportation projects. In this case, other interested bidders are given a certaintimeframe to offer competing proposals, thereby eliminating the LOI and RFQ requests. Boththe LOI and firm/team qualifications would become part of the proposal.

Proposal Solicitation and Bid Evaluation ConsiderationsFor solicited proposals, an RFP is prepared which contains the requirements, terms, andconditions for the PPP project. The RFP is issued to the pre-qualified firms or teams, which thenprepare proposal responses. These are submitted to the sponsoring agency within a specifiedtimeframe, as described in the RFP, with each submission reviewed and evaluated to determinewhich one offers the best value to the sponsoring agency and the public it represents. Exhibit 27summarizes the key factors that should be considered in evaluating and ranking PPP project bidsthat are received in response to either a solicited or unsolicited proposal.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 43 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (51)

Exhibit 27 Key Factors to Evaluate PPP Project Bids

• Flexibility/breadth of legal-regulatory authority of sponsoring agency to useproposed contract approach

• Capability of sponsoring agency to effectively negotiate and administer theproposed contract through in-house and retained specialized support resources

• Transparency of PPP procurement process and contract terms - and theirimplications− Life-cycle cost of project that maximizes Value for Money

• Project delivery schedule− Performance-based standards for holding partners accountable for project results− Periodic performance monitoring and reporting requirements− Annual contract auditing provisions

• Capabilities and experience of project delivery team in all areas of proposedresponsibility and its ability to manage various project risks

• Innovative use of alternative funding approaches to leverage available publicfunds− Relative use of equity and/or debt, bank loans and/or capital markets and their

respective timing to finance the project− Involvement of public sector in value capture including developers and businesses

served by transportation facilities produced as a result of a PPP− Treatment of windfall profits revenue-sharing with public agency and price

regulation− Insurance or surety provisions to manage financial risks

• Proposed use of new technology to improve cost-effectiveness of project andenhance user service and safety

• Consistency with public policy and interest− Public attitudes towards ownership and control of transportation assets parochialism

potential− Protection of public interest equity, safety, reasonable price, accessibility, mobility

This mix of factors to be considered by the agency project selection committee reflects a bestvalue-based bid evaluation process, versus the low-bid evaluation process associated with thetraditional contractor selection process. The value-based selection process reflects how theprivate bids are structured, the broader private sector responsibilities of PPP project deliveryapproaches, and the many attributes that can impact the overall value to be received by the publicfrom the PPP approach taken.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 44 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (52)

PPP PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSESSuccessfully implementing projects delivered through public-private partnership approachesrequires more than issuing a solicitation and developing a contract to that effectively transfersproject responsibilities and risks to a private sector team in return for certain financialconsiderations. Once procured, a PPP project requires continuing communication andcoordination throughout the project development, implementation, operation, and preservationphases between the project partners. PPP projects also require thorough contract administrationby the sponsoring agency, including periodic monitoring and public reporting of projectperformance relative to the terms of the contract agreement to ensure accountability of thepartners to the public.

Performance Measures for PPP Project ReviewsExhibit 28 lists a representative sample of performance measures for assessing PPP projectsrelative to the contract agreement terms.

Exhibit 28 Potential PPP Project Performance Measures

• Traffic volumes on an annual and peak hour basis, by season

• Level of service (extent of congestion) on the facility during peak periods byseason

• Annual revenues from tolls, concession, and other funding sources relative toprojections

• Annual lane-miles out of service for incident-based repair and preventivemaintenance

• Percentage of project financing provided by private sector partners

• Ability of project to fully cover debt service costs, contract costs, and coveragelevels with a reasonable rate of return on invested capital by the private sectorpartners

• Net increase in capital program due to PPP projects

• Project cost relative to engineer s estimate and contract budget

• Project duration relative to contract term

• Cost per transaction for PPP project operations

• Percent of tolls collected by ETC for PPP project facilities

• Ratings of bonds sold for PPP project

• Proportion of PPP project costs required for contract administration

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 45 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (53)

Key Steps in Developing and Implementing PPP ProjectsExhibit 29 lists the five key phases and steps in development and implementation of a surfacetransportation PPP. These five key phases lay out the sequence of events that should occur as thepublic sponsor determines whether a PPP approach is appropriate for the project, while theprivate sector providers determine if there is sufficient potential for adequate return to justify theassumption of responsibilities and risks associated with the proposed PPP approach.

These same phases and component steps are appropriate even when the PPP is for a public-public partnership involving multiple public agencies. This will increasingly be the case ashighway, transit, and economic development agencies collaborate to expedite transportationimprovements that promote personal mobility, accessibility, and economic development.

Exhibit 29 PPP Implementation Steps for Public Agency Sponsors

• Phase 1 Perform Preliminary Project Planning

− Determine transportation need− Develop preliminary project scope

− Determine environmental constructability− Develop preliminary financial plan regarding project sources and uses of funds

• Phase 2 Establish Eligibility for PPP Status

− Assess in-house capabilities to perform project using in-house resources ortraditional approaches

− Identify resource and functional capabilities required to deliver project in a timelymanner

− Determine procurement approach and type of projects to be considered in the PPPprogram

− Establish legal authority to enter into PPP arrangements involving alternativeapproaches to project financing, development, delivery, and preservation

− Develop preliminary allocation of roles, responsibilities, risks, and returns for thepublic and private partners to a potential project PPP

− Develop and implement remedies to legal or regulatory impediments to PPPs andother alternative approaches to more cost-effective project development

• Phase 3 Explore Potential and Interest of Private Providers to Enter into a PPPfor the Project

− Request suggestions for structuring the PPP from interested private providers

− Solicit letters of interest and qualifications to pre-qualify the most promisingprospective providers

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 46 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (54)

Exhibit 29 PPP Implementation Steps for Public Agency Sponsors continued

• Phase 4 Solicit Proposals from Prospective Private Providers and Select BestValue Team Using a Transparent Process

− Develop and issue performance-based request for proposals from pre-qualifiedprivate providers for scope of services required by the private provider, withpotential to improvise and offer innovative solutions to project financing, delivery,and preservation

− Review and evaluate responses to RFPs based on pre-established criteria,providing a level playing field for prospective private partners

− Begin negotiations with PPP team judged to offer the best value over the life-cycleof the project and finalize PPP contract terms of agreement when acceptable

• Phase 5 Establish and Nurture PPP Arrangements for Project Delivery as aPPP

− Develop full understanding and capabilities among public sector staff responsiblefor managing the PPP contract

− Ensure clear understanding of relative roles, responsibilities, risks, and rewards ofPPP arrangements, as defined in the contract agreement

− Establish full protocols for communication, coordination, and problemidentification and resolution throughout contract term, involving clear lines ofauthority, responsibility, and communication

− Work collaboratively and constructively to flexibly apply the terms of the contractwithin the performance requirements defined in the terms of agreement

− Hold periodic meetings among team leaders from both public and private sectors,at the senior management level and tactical/technical implementation level,throughout the project contract term

− Hold all parties to the PPP accountable for complying with the terms of the PPPthroughout the duration of the contract through regular project reporting andreview

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 47 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (55)

6. IMPEDIMENTS AND RISK MANAGEMENT FOR TRANSPORTATION PPPs

This section discusses the principal challenges to the successful development andimplementation of PPPs for surface transportation projects come from legal, regulatory,institutional, procedural, financial, and cultural impediments. In considering whether to proceedwith a project as a PPP, there may be a number of issues that arise and require resolution prior toinitiation or during project execution.

KEY IMPEDIMENTSExisting agencies can have difficulty in applying PPPs due to differences in how public agenciesand private companies function and value their efforts, which reflects differences in theirrespective cultures. Exhibit 30 lists several potential cultural differences between publicagencies and their private sector counterparts to a PPP. Producing a successful PPP requires firstrecognizing and then bridging these differences through mutual understanding.

Exhibit 30 Potential Cultural Differences between Public and Private Partners

• Short-term versus long-term timeframe

• User focus versus customer focus

• Risk averse versus managed risk

• Expensed assets versus investments to be preserved

• Wait for full funding (debt free) versus build and pay off (using equity and/ordebt)

• Rigid versus flexible approaches to project development, financing, and delivery

• Standardized versus innovative approaches

• Domination of transportation infrastructure program delivery by local firmsversus competition provided by domestic and international firms

• Regulatory compliance versus empowered staff

• Constrained resources versus leveraged resources

• Process driven versus product/service driven

Ten additional potential impediments to the successful deployment of PPPs for surfacetransportation projects are described in Exhibit 31 on the next page. Besides cultural differenceswhich are the most difficult to change and are better accommodated, the most important threat toa transportation public-private partnership is institutional inertia, which can be reinforced byboth culture and a long legacy of performing functions a certain way, as prescribed by FHWA orAASHTO. Each of the following ten impediments needs to be anticipated and mitigated whereapparent so that PPP efforts are not sabotaged by the very agencies responsible for theirdevelopment and implementation.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 48 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (56)

Exhibit 31 Potential Impediments to Transportation PPPs

• Institutional Inertia opposition by transportation program administrators/staff andmembers of the construction/design industries to changes in traditional approaches

• Fear of Change - by local firms that change will undermine their competitive positions

• Distrust - between the public sector and the private sector reinforces institutional inertia• Legal Prohibitions or Regulatory Restrictions - against attributes of effective PPPs

often instituted and reinforced by imbedded stakeholders in the status quo− Procurement (unsolicited, best value, design-build, warranties, environmental clearance)

− Permitting (utility, navigable waterways, etc.)− Land acquisition (advanced, before and after pricing)

− Environmental clearance• Lack of Familiarity with PPPs - including the mechanisms for developing and

implementing PPP projects and the relative balance between public and private sector roles,responsibilities, risks, and returns

− Limited public knowledge and understanding of PPPs− Lack of consistency in how agencies interpret statutes/regulations regarding PPPs

− Scarcity of documented examples of successful PPPs in transportation− Lack of a specialized corps of professionals within state transportation agencies

responsible for managing PPPs• Differences in Perspectives and Objectives - between public sponsoring agency and

private provider firms− Process constrained public sector conflicts with expediency of private sector

− Differences in financing goals and timeframes− Confidentiality concerns of private versus public sector transparency requirements

− Public sector service focus versus private sector rate of return needs− Tax exemption advantage of public debt over private debt

• Lack of Adequate/Dedicated Revenue Sources to support project financing− Project must add up be financially feasible for both partners

− Private sector partner needs to earn a reasonable rate of return− User fees and other revenues may need to be tapped unless public funds can provide

availability payments over the life of the contract in lieu of user fees, such as tolls− Dedicated revenue sources are the best way to support project financial plan

• Loss of Control facility operations, toll rates, use of revenues, public interest protection

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 49 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (57)

ADDRESSING IMPEDIMENTS TO TRANSPORTATION PPPsSuggested strategies to address these impediments by project phase are listed in Exhibit 32.These strategies are organized into the following categories:

• Getting started

• Defining the partnership participants• Funding and financing the project

• Balancing the roles, responsibilities, risks, and returns• Nurturing the partnership

These categories reflect the evolving phases in the development, implementation, and executionof the PPP project over its life cycle. While PPP approaches to project delivery are not the onlyway to solve the fiscal problems facing state and local transportation agencies, freedom frominstitutional impediments alone cannot make a poor project successful. Experience has shownhow institutional impediments such as those shown in Exhibit 31 can stop or significantly delayworthy projects.

Exhibit 32 Strategies to Address Impediments to Transportation PPPs

• Getting Started− PPP project success or failure will depend on many factors most important is the

nature and level of interest of project stakeholders and their willingness/ability tocommit to the project as partners.

− Establish broad legal authority to enable transportation agencies to use PPPs.

− Identify a public champion to bulldog the project from start to completion.− Define a clear project vision so interested private and public sector parties can

assess their interest.− Establish clear guidelines for PPP development, including milestones, roles, and

responsibilities.− Tailor each PPP to its institutional, jurisdictional, transportation, economic, and

financial context.

• Defining the Partnership Participants− Involve all public and private stakeholders with an economic or other interest in the

project willing and able to participate as partners in project financing commensuratewith their expected benefits.

− Involve private sector partners in project conceptualization as soon as possible togain maximum advantage of their insights and suggestions.

− Encourage private sector creativity to cost-effectively achieve the project vision.

− Focus on performance outcomes/benefits of the project - not the just the procedures.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 50 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (58)

Exhibit 32 Strategies to Address Impediments to Transportation PPPs continued

• Funding and Financing the Project− Let the project define financing - but allow the financing to define project delivery.− Consider the full range of possible funding sources, not just tolls i.e., new credit

programs, joint development prospects, new revenue sources, private activity bonds§ Define the financing plan before beginning development

§ Identify project benefits and beneficiaries§ Let government partner sponsor social programs

§ Understand the allocation of financial risks§ Identify contingencies and have a plan to fund them

− Enable private sector partner(s) to make a reasonable return on their investment noprofit potential means no private capital will be put to risk.

• Balancing the Roles, Responsibilities, Risks, and Returns− Transfer financial/project risks to the private sector provided it has the authority and

capability to manage conditions that are likely to impact these risks.

− Avoid imposing excessive risks on the private sector that will keep them away,particularly in the area of tort liability where private risk may be much higher thanpublic risk.

− Avoid trying to make a bad project into a good project merely by turning it intoa PPP project§ Quality projects may be enhanced with a PPP approach

§ Bad projects are unlikely to become viable even with a PPP approach§ The private sector will avoid bad projects if it bears the risk of failure.

• Nurturing the Partnership− Maintain an air of civility among the partners based on mutual self-interest and

respect.

− Establish ongoing communication among the project partners throughout the projectdevelopment process to quickly recognize achievements and address problems in aconstructive manner.

− Communicate status, progress, and results of project quickly and openly to thepublic to gain their understanding, support, and enthusiasm.

− Establish an objective, transparent, equitable, and accountable contract procurementand administration process where the project roles, responsibilities, risks, andrewards are clearly defined, with appropriate due diligence to ensure compliancewith contract terms and conditions.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 51 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (59)

In addition to the strategies listed in Exhibit 32 for addressing impediments to transportationPPPs, Exhibit 33 lists additional ways to address these issues before they can cause a project tofail, including the protection of the public interest in public infrastructure long paid for by motorfuel taxes and other federal, state, and local revenue sources.

Exhibit 33 Additional Strategies to Address Issues Related to Transportation PPPs

• Define toll rate adjustment schedule based on pre-established criteria (such asconsumer price index or highway construction price index) and prescribedcoverage ratios that avoids the potential for windfall profits to the privatepartner.

• Define maximum profit levels or rates of return on invested capital by privatesector partners, with potential revenue sharing above certain profit levels.

• Require sponsor approval of any transfer of responsibility for functions providedby the private sector partners, including ability to sell or transfer financialinterests in the project.

• Define standards of performance for services provided by the developer,operator, and preserver of the project over the term of the contract agreementthat are beneficial to users of the facility.

• Hold both private and public sector partners accountable for project and servicedelivery consistent with the contract terms that protects the public interest in theproject and the non-financial benefits the facility provides to variousstakeholders.

• Define court of jurisdiction as state where sponsor and facility are located.

• Retain responsibility for financial management of proceeds from long-termconcession leases, with up-front (if applicable) and on-going payments to theprivate sector team members (or consortia) based on payment terms of contract.

• Establish transparent and equitable procurement and selection process thatprovides equal access to all interested parties, while permitting the application ofinnovative approaches and technologies that may be unique.

RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH TRANSPORTATION PPPsWhile providing a variety of advantages, there are also risks to consider when using PPPs fortransportation projects. There are many types of risks that can influence dramatically theviability of a PPP project and the relative interest of the public sponsor and the private providerteam. Exhibit 34 provides a summary listing of the major types of risks associated withtransportation projects. It is one of the purposes of a PPP that the risks are allocated to thosepartners best able to manage those kinds of risks.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 52 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (60)

Exhibit 34 Summary of Major Risks Associated with Transportation Projects

Various risks that can impact the cost and feasibility of a transportation project, as well as therevenue potential and financial feasibility of a PPP and its ultimate success are described below.One of the features of a PPP is the ability to allocate project risks to the partner best able tomanage and mitigate these risks. All members of a PPP should understand these risks and howthey can affect a proposed project to determine how to best structure the PPP arrangement.

• Public Acceptance perhaps the greatest risk to a proposed PPP project is the degreeof public acceptance of the project, its procurement as a PPP, and the means by whichthe project will be paid for (tolling or value pricing), with greater public acceptanceand political support reducing the risk of project development failure or defaultfollowing completion.

• Control of Assets the public and many local politicians have expressed concernover the perceived loss of control over transportation infrastructure assets, particularlythe level and frequency of toll rate increases, the physical condition and appearance ofthe facility, and protection of the public interests in these public-use facilities (such aspersonal mobility, commercial accessibility, promotion of public safety, anddiscounted access to public transportation).

• Protectionism an emerging factor in the United States is the nationality of the firmscomprising the PPP provider team, especially the lead project development firm andfinancing companies, which may result in either legislative efforts to limit foreigninvolvement in certain types of PPP projects (such as the long-term lease ofestablished toll highways, especially those included in the Interstate System) or stateor local political and public grassroots efforts to oppose PPP projects with significantand highly visible foreign company involvement and control.

• Political Stability/Support even in the United States where the political frameworkof the nation is quite stable (unlike a number of nations overseas), the continuity ofpolitical support for a PPP project remains an essential ingredient for successfuldevelopment and implementation and should there be a change in the politicalstructure or composition in the area served by the PPP project and to which the

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 53 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

Liability/latent defectsLife-cycle costRegulatory/contractualPaymentstructure/mechanismTransaction costChanges of lawCompensation/terminationEconomic shiftsCurrency/foreign exchangeTaxation constraints

Public acceptanceControl of assetsProtectionismPolitical stabilityMoral hazardDemand/volumeRevenueEnvironmental/archeologicalRight-of-way costsConstruction costMaintenance cost

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (61)

sponsoring agency is accountable, this can significantly impact the potential of a PPPproject to proceed or continue, particularly if the status of the PPP project becomes amajor issue in a political campaign.

• Moral Hazard the sensitivity of using PPP approaches to deliver transportationprojects in the United States makes it imperative that the public sponsor of the projectmaintain complete integrity and transparency of the PPP procurement, selection, andcontract administration to avoid conflicts of interest and fraudulent activities duringprocurement and execution phases of the project. This requires the public sector tohold the PPP provider publicly accountable for the proper execution of the projectconsistent with the terms of the contract agreement. Unethical behavior in one PPPproject can negatively impact the potential for successful development andimplementation of proposed PPP projects by the sponsoring agency, as well as inother parts of the nation where PPP approaches are novel and subject to greaterscrutiny and doubt.

• Demand/Volume level and timing of traffic or transactions on an annual basis andat peak travel periods.

• Revenue level of timing of proceeds from tolls or congestion (variable) pricing ofhighway use, concession and other non-toll revenues (advertising), or transit fares.

• Environmental/Archeological site conditions that raise environmental,archeological, historic preservation, and other issues (munitions on the site) that mayrequire mitigation and the costs of mitigation measures and their responsibility.

• Right-of-Way Cost a major area of uncertainty for transportation projects is theamount and cost of acquiring parcels of land needed for the project right-of-way. Thecosts of real estate can vary significantly depending on the strength and expansion ofthe local economy, the level of demand for new development relative to the availablesupply, whether a full parcel is required or only a portion of the parcel (called a partialtake), and the influence of speculators who recognize the potential for increased landvalues in the vicinity of the project due to the added accessibility to be provided bythe project.

• Construction Cost the cost of project construction costs which may be impacted bychanges in the availability and cost of materials, labor, and maintenance of traffic,plus the cost of performance bonds required by the sponsoring agency for the fullvalue of the project (also called surety bonds).

• Maintenance Cost for PPP contracts including operations and maintenance, thecost of maintenance and repair activities which may be impacted by the quality of thedesign and construction, changes in traffic volumes (auto and truck), the weight limitsof trucks using the facility, geological (subsurface) conditions, and adequacy andcondition of drainage structures.

• Liability/Latent Defects potential for defects in the design or construction, due topoor workmanship or unknown site conditions and the effect on project costs and theresponsibility for paying for these costs.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 54 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (62)

• Life-Cycle Cost for PPP contracts with long terms (45 years or more), thecumulative costs of facility maintenance, rehabilitation, and reconstruction orexpansion over the term of the contract and its effect on project cash flow andreserves, which are affected by the quality of the design, construction, and inspectionas well as the preventive maintenance program implemented by the PPP providerteam.

• Regulatory/Contractual changes in regulations or contract provisions that impactthe cost exposure of one or more of the partners and their responsibility for their costs.

• Payment Structure/Mechanism effect on value of project participation based onsource, method, and timing of project cost reimbursem*nt or availability payments.

• Transaction Cost the level of costs associated with completing the varioustransactions involved in completing the PPP contract agreement and subsequentfinancial actions and responsibility for payment of these costs.

• Changes of Law - new statutes or regulations, including design standards orconstruction specifications, which impact the cost and profitability of the project anddelivery timeframe.

• Compensation and Termination Clauses how the PPP provider team will becompensated for work completed if the project or the contract agreement isterminated, depending on the reasons for termination, and any penalty clauses forearly termination by the sponsoring agency.

• Economic Shifts changes in the economic activity and demography of the regionserved by the facility which could impact the level of usage and the proceeds to coverthe costs of the facility over the term of the contract and the responsibility foraccounting for the difference.

• Currency/Foreign Exchange changes in the relative value of national currenciesthat can impact the cost of the project and the value of revenue proceeds to a PPPprovider which is based in another country with a different currency than that used forproject reimbursem*nt or payment of revenue proceeds.

• Taxation Constraints national, state, or local taxes on the materials used indeveloping a transportation facility and the proceeds derived from operation of apriced facility can impact its financial viability, especially when using taxable debtand/or equity and/or when the PPP production team is based overseas.

Each of these risk factors can raise or lower the viability of a PPP project, producing a range ofpotential outcomes that the financial community has recognized need to be incorporated intofinancial feasibility studies of PPP projects to show the estimated upper and lower limits offinancial results for the project. Managing these risks is an important consideration in selectingthe right PPP approach and project team.

Exhibit 35 identifies the project responsibilities and risks that can be fully or partially transferredto the private sector partner for each alternative PPP approach considered in this document.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 55 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (63)

Exhibit 35 Functional Responsibilities and Risks of Private Partners by PPP Approach

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 56 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (64)

Each partner to a PPP has a level of tolerance for risks and a capacity to manage certain types ofrisks. Risk transfer to the partner best able to mange it is a way to reduce the cost of the projectand improve its potential for success. The public sector is typically best equipped to manageenvironmental, right-of-way acquisition, statutory/regulatory, and public acceptance risk factors.The private sector is typically best equipped to manage construction cost, project deliverytimeframe, maintenance cost, latent defects and project quality risk factors. Other risk factorsare more difficult for either partner to manage and become part of the uncertainty that needs tobe accounted for in evaluating the PPP project by all parties to the partnership.13

Exhibit 36 highlights the potential consequences of a number of these risk factors for membersof a PPP and suggests ways to mitigate these results.

Exhibit 36 Consequences and Mitigation Strategies for PPP Project Risks

Risk Category Description Consequence MitigationSite Conditions • Existing structures

may be inadequate.• Contamination of

site.• Needed approvals

may not beobtained.

• Additionalconstructioncosts and timedelays.

• Clean up costs.

• Commission studies toinvestigate suitability ofsite and structures.

• Private sector toincorporate risk byrefurbishment duringconstruction phase.

Design,Construction andImplementationRisk

• Facility incapableof delivering at theanticipated costs.

• Physical oroperationalimplementationtests cannot becompleted.

• Increase inrecurrent costs,delays.

• Delayed/lostrevenue.

• Seek reputableconstructors with strongfinancial credentials.

• Private party may passrisk to builder/architectswhile maintainingprimary liability.

• Link payments toprogress.

Financial • Interest rate risk.• Financing

unavailable.• Contingent funding

requirements.

• Increasedproject cost.

• Non-completion ofconstruction.

• Interest rate hedging.• Financial due diligence.• Bank/capital guarantees

from companies anddirectors.

13 Global Toll Road Rating Guidelines. Project Finance, Criteria Report. Fitch Ratings, New York City, NY, September 12, 2006.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 57 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (65)

Exhibit 36 Consequences and Mitigation Strategies for PPP Project Risks - continued

Risk Category Description Consequence MitigationOperating • Inputs,

maintenance mayyield higher costs.

• Changes togovernmentrequirements withrespect to facilityoperations.

• Increase inoperatingcosts.

• Adverseeffects onquality andservicedelivery.

• Long-term supply contractswhere quality/quantity canbe assured.

• Upfront specification bypublic sponsoring agency.

Market • Fluctuations ineconomic activityon demand.

• Competition,demographicchange andinflation.

• Lowerrevenues.

• Diminution inreal returns tothe privateparty.

• Private operator to seek anavailability paymentelement to minimizeimpact on risk premium.

• Review likely competitionfor service and barriers toentry.

Legislative • Additionalapprovals requiredduring the courseof the projectcannot be obtained.

• Changes in lawsand regulation.

• Further changein businessoperation maybe prevented.

• Increase inoperating costsby complyingwith new laws.

• Private sector to anticipaterequirements.

• Public sponsor to monitorand limit changes whichmay yield adverse results.

• Foster public, political, andinstitutionalunderstanding/support

Asset Ownership • Loss of the facilityupon prematuretermination oflease or otherproject contractsupon breach andwithout adequatepayment.

• Different residualvalue to thatoriginallycalculated.

• Loss of publiccontrol over asset,toll rates, and thepublic interest.

• Loss ofinvestment ofprivate party

• Possibleservicedisruption asadditionalcapital costsincurred toupgrade theasset to theagreed valueand useful life.

• Public outcryand politicalbacklash thatmay lead totermination ofthe contract.

• Provide private partner curerights to remedy defaults.

• Public sponsor may pay forproject value on a cost tocomplete basis iftermination occurs pre-completion.

• Impose maintenance andrefurbishment obligationson the private party.

• Secure services of areputable maintenancecontractor, with strongfinancial credentials.

• Contract clearly statesresponsibilities of publicand private parties,including toll rates andservice standards.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 58 PPP Impediments and Risk Management

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (66)

7. DOMESTIC AND GLOBAL USE OF TRANSPORTATION PPPs

This section places the relative use of PPP approaches to deliver surface transportation projectsin the United States in the context of the global experience of using PPPs in other countries overthe past 20 years. The section also highlights the domestic and international capabilities ofproject development and infrastructure finance companies to support various PPP approaches totransportation project delivery.

USE OF PPPs FOR U.S. ROAD-RELATED PROJECTSBetween 1985 and 2004, there were 62 PPP road projects planned and funded in the UnitedStates representing $42 billion. Exhibit 37 shows the distribution of PPP road-related projects byfacility type over that 20-year period. Exhibit 38 shows the distribution of PPP road-relatedprojects by contract approach over the same 20-year period.The key results shown in Exhibits 37 and 38 on the next page are listed below:

• Most of the U.S. road projects were for toll and non-toll highways, representing 44percent and 39 percent of the total number of projects, respectively.

• In terms of project costs, the largest type of PPP road project was toll highway,representing 62 percent of total cost.

• Non-toll highway projects accounted for only 19 percent of total cost, since toll highwayprojects are often much larger than their non-toll highway counterparts.

• At just over $900 million each, toll highway projects were about three times the cost ofnon-toll highway projects in the PPP project database

• Most of the U.S. road projects involved DB and DBOM contracts with DB the largestcontract type at 40 percent of the projects and 34 percent of the costs. These PPPcontracts included both toll highway and non-toll highway projects.

• While DBOM projects represented only 16 percent of the total number of PPP projectsplanned and funded in the U.S., they amounted to 37 percent of the total costs. This wasbecause DBOM projects, at $1.6 billion each, are about three times the size of their DBcounterparts, with contract terms of up to 20 30 years.

• The third most frequently used contracting method was Management Contract at 15percent. These were relatively small non-toll highway projects in terms of cost, whichwas reflected by the small percentage (1 percent) of total costs accounted for byManagement Contract projects, whose terms were typically from 5-7 years.

• While there were fewer Concession and DBFO contracts in the U.S., their average costwas significantly higher than their DB counterparts, particularly Concession contracts atabout $1.3 billion each.

Globally, the United States has had the vast majority of the DB and Management Contract roadprojects. While not extensively used in any region, BOO was also used more in the U.S. thanelsewhere, particularly for small projects involving toll bridges.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 59 Domestic and Global PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (67)

Exhibit 37 U.S. Road, Bridge, and Tunnel PPPs by Facility Type14

(62 Planned & Funded Projects in the U.S. worth $42 Billion between 1985-2004)

Exhibit 38 U.S. Road, Bridge, and Tunnel PPPs by Contract Type15

(62 Planned & Funded Projects in the U.S. worth $42 Billion between 1985-2004)

14 AECOM Consult, Inc. “Synthesis of Public-Private Partnership Projects for Roads, Bridges & Tunnels from Around the World –1985-2004”, prepared at the request of the Federal Highway Administration, August 30, 2005.15 AECOM Consult, Inc. “Synthesis of Public-Private Partnership Projects for Roads, Bridges & Tunnels from Around the World –1985-2004”, prepared at the request of the Federal Highway Administration, August 30, 2005.

DBFO4%

DBOM37%BOT/BTO

4%

BOO2%

DB34%

ManagementContract

1%Concession

18%DBFO

4%

DBOM37%BOT/BTO

4%

BOO2%

DB34%

ManagementContract

1%Concession

18%DBFO

4%

DBOM37%BOT/BTO

4%

BOO2%

DB34%

ManagementContract

1%Concession

18%DBFO

4%

DBOM37%BOT/BTO

4%

BOO2%

DB34%

ManagementContract

1%Concession

18%

DBOM, 10

BOO, 5

BOT/BTO, 5

ManagementContract

9

DB, 25

DBFO, 2

Concession, 6

DBOM, 10

BOO, 5

BOT/BTO, 5

ManagementContract

9

DB, 25

DBFO, 2

Concession, 6

DBFO4%

DBOM37%BOT/BTO

4%

BOO2%

DB34%

ManagementContract

1%Concession

18%DBFO

4%

DBOM37%BOT/BTO

4%

BOO2%

DB34%

ManagementContract

1%Concession

18%DBFO

4%

DBOM37%BOT/BTO

4%

BOO2%

DB34%

ManagementContract

1%Concession

18%DBFO

4%

DBOM37%BOT/BTO

4%

BOO2%

DB34%

ManagementContract

1%Concession

18%

DBOM, 10

BOO, 5

BOT/BTO, 5

ManagementContract

9

DB, 25

DBFO, 2

Concession, 6

DBOM, 10

BOO, 5

BOT/BTO, 5

ManagementContract

9

DB, 25

DBFO, 2

Concession, 6

Toll Bridges, 8

Toll Tunnels, 1

TollHighways

28

Toll Bridges& Tunnels, 1

Non-TollHighways

24

Toll Bridges8%

Toll Highways60%

Toll Tunnels10%

Toll Bridges &Tunnels

2%Non-Toll

Highways19%Toll Bridges, 8

Toll Tunnels, 1

TollHighways

28

Toll Bridges& Tunnels, 1

Non-TollHighways

24

Toll Bridges8%

Toll Highways60%

Toll Tunnels10%

Toll Bridges &Tunnels

2%Non-Toll

Highways19%

Number of PPP Projects by Facility Type Percent of PPP Project Costs by Facility Type

Number of PPP Projects by Contract Type Percent of PPP Project Costs by Contract Type

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 60 Domestic and Global PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (68)

The growth in PPPs in the U.S. is most evident in the past 2 years, when:• 58 PPP road projects were planned or funded, versus 42 projects in the prior 20 years;

and• $54.3 billion in PPP road projects were planned and/or funded, versus $42.2 billion in

PPP road projects during the entire prior 20 years.Other evidence of the growth of PPP projects is found in increased number of proposed tollprojects, currently totally 58 toll projects valued at $85 billion. This compares to only 16 tollprojects valued at $19 billion just two years ago. Most of these toll road projects are structuredas concession arrangements, while other are proposed simply as design-build projects.16

COMPARATIVE USE OF PPPs FOR U.S. HIGHWAY AND TRANSIT PROJECTSThere have been 44 highway projects and 12 transit projects approved and/or completed since1991that have used some type of PPP arrangement to expedite the financing and delivery ofthese projects, as shown in Exhibit 39 below.

Exhibit 39 Major Highway and Transit PPP Projects since 1991

Source: Public Works Financing Newsletter, Volume 214, March 2007, pp. 14 and 15.

16 Public Works Financing Newsletter, Volume 209, October 2006, p. 4.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 61 Domestic and Global PPPs

#T Number of major transit capital projects delivered as PPPs by state

*States with PPP projects over $53 million with Notice to Proceed by 1991

Number of major highway capital projects delivered as PPPs by state#H

3

4

1

21

1

3

22

24

2

5

5

2

10

3

1H

4H

1H

1H1H

1H

3H

2H2H

2H4H

1H

5H

5H

1H

7H

1H

3T

1T

1T

2T

1T 1T

1T

1T

1T

1H

1H

3

4

1

21

1

3

22

24

2

5

5

2

10

3

1H

4H

1H

1H1H

1H

3H

2H2H

2H4H

1H

5H

5H

1H

7H

1H

3T

1T

1T

2T

1T 1T

1T

1T

1T

1H

1H

1T1T

1T

1T

1H

1H1T1T

1T1T

1H

1H

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (69)

Exhibit 40 shows the types of PPP arrangements used for highway and transit projects deliveredas PPPs since 1991. Both highway and transit PPP projects have been primarily design-buildprojects, with concession projects the second highest category of PPP for highways and DBOMthe second highest category of PPP for transit.

Exhibit 40 Use of PPPs for Major Highway and Transit Projects since 1991*

* Projects over $53 million with Notice to Proceed by 1991

Sources: Public Works Financing – Volume 211. December 2006, pp. 14-15.

The 12 major transit-related PPP projects alluded to in Exhibit 40 represent an investment of$9.9 billion and include the following breakdown of PPP delivery approaches: eight DB projects;three DBOM projects; and one DBFO project.

According to the FTA New Starts Program Office, 28 percent of the costs of major transit capitalprojects approved under the New Starts program have or are being delivered as PPPs since 2000.This percentage is expected to grow with the encouragement and support of the Federal TransitAdministration, which recently initiated a PPP Pilot Program to help fund up to three New Startsprojects that involve a significant use of the private sector through a PPP arrangement to movelarge-scale capital projects forward.17

17 Federal Transit Administration, Docket No: FTA-2006-23697, Public-Private Partnership Pilot Program, 72 Fed. Reg. 2583(January 19, 2007) (the “Pilot Program Notice”). The Pilot Program was authorized by section 3011 of the Safe, Accountable,Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU), Public Law 109-59, 119 Stat. 1144 et seq. (2005).

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 62 Domestic and Global PPPs

Major Highway PPP Project Costs Since 1991(Total: $22,431 Million)

DB54%

Concession35%

DBFO2%

DBM6%

BOT0%

DBF3%

Major Transit PPP Costs Since 1991(Total: $7,384 Million)

DB43%

DBOM43%

DBFO5%

BOT9%

Major Transit PPP Projects Since 1991(12 projects)

DB, 8DBOM, 3

DBFO, 1BOT, 1

Major Highway PPP Projects Since 1991(44 Projects)

DB, 31

DBF, 3

DBFO, 2

DBM, 1

BOT, 1 Concession, 6

Major Highway PPP Project Costs Since 1991(Total: $22,431 Million)

DB54%

Concession35%

DBFO2%

DBM6%

BOT0%

DBF3%

Major Transit PPP Costs Since 1991(Total: $7,384 Million)

DB43%

DBOM43%

DBFO5%

BOT9%

Major Transit PPP Projects Since 1991(12 projects)

DB, 8DBOM, 3

DBFO, 1BOT, 1

Major Highway PPP Projects Since 1991(44 Projects)

DB, 31

DBF, 3

DBFO, 2

DBM, 1

BOT, 1 Concession, 6

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (70)

FUTURE USE OF PPPs FOR U.S. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION PROJECTSA number of factors will influence the extent to which PPPs will be part of the solution ofaddressing the fiscal and service delivery challenges facing surface transportation sponsors in thefuture. These include the following:

• Lack of robust tax-based Transportation Trust Fund will encourage more PPPs by states;• PPPs potential to deliver projects faster and cheaper, with quicker access to capital

markets and new technology; and• While PPPs can leverage scarce public resources and improve the efficiency of project

delivery and operations, alternative funding sources will be needed to meet the needs.The PPP market is estimated to grow significantly over the next 10 years as traditionaltransportation funding sources are expected to become scarcer. The primary types of PPPs fordelivering surface transportation projects in the U.S. are expected to be:

• DB - medium to large new or reconstructed highways; transit facilities• DBOM - new tolled or non-tolled roads; transit facilities

• DBFO - primarily new toll roads• Concession - primarily existing and new toll roads• Joint Development Agreement - new highways and transit facilities

It is projected that up to $40 billion in surface transportation concession projects could beawarded in the U.S. during the next few years.18 By the end of 2006, there were at least 74highway and transit projects in the U.S. being considered for development using the concessionapproach, with the number of prospective projects in the pipeline shown in Exhibit 41 by state.Many of these are located in the states of Texas, Florida, Virginia, North Carolina, and Oregon.

Exhibit 41 States with Existing and Pre-Award Concessions*(figures indicate total number of pre-award concessions as of November 2006)

18 State of New Jersey Asset Evaluation Program - Phase 1 Report. UBS Investment Bank, November 15, 2006, p. 54.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 63 Domestic and Global PPPs

States with existing concession projects

States with potential concession projects (number in pre-award stage in November 2006)

*Also includes Alaska (1)

2

1 1

4

4

31

114

2 1

4

11

24

1 9

11 1

2

1

Sources: Infranews and Public Works Financing, Data valid through November 2006

2

States with existing concession projects

States with potential concession projects (number in pre-award stage in November 2006)

*Also includes Alaska (1)

2

1 1

4

4

31

114

2 1

4

11

24

1 9

11 1

2

1

Sources: Infranews and Public Works Financing, Data valid through November 2006

2

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (71)

GLOBAL USE OF PPPs TO ADVANCE ROAD-RELATED PROJECTSMajor changes in the economic strength and relationships among nations have prompted many ofthem to seek alternative ways to expedite the development of transportation infrastructure toimprove regional accessibility and support their economic growth. Examples of this include:

• Creation of the European Union;• Breakup of the Soviet Union;

• Reunification of eastern European nations with their western counterparts; and• Emergence of both China and India as major players in the global economy.

The evolution of PPPs to rapidly meet these emerging needs has led to their refinement andproliferation in type and number, with many more countries moving to establish the legalauthority to enter into PPPs to expedite financing and delivery of surface transportation projectsprompted by the changes noted above.

The use of public-private partnerships to develop transportation infrastructure is morewidespread in other parts of the world than in the United States. Exhibit 42 shows the dollarvalue of road, bridge, and tunnel projects funded and/or delivered as PPPs between the years1985 and 2004 for each major region of the world, including PPP projects in the U.S. as part ofthe North America region.

Exhibit 42 Number and Value of Road-Related PPPs by Global Region19

RegionTotal Planned & Funded Since 1985 Total Funded & Completed by 10/04

# % $Billion % # % $Billion %

Africa 14 2% $4.8 1% 7 2% $3.7 2%Asia 137 21% $83.9 26% 72 20% $44.5 28%

Europe 205 31% $139.1 43% 91 25% $58.1 37%Latin America 126 19% $26.2 8% 83 23% $18.9 12%North America 174 27% $70.8 22% 106 30% $32.2 20%

Total 656 100% $324.7 100% 359 100% $157.3 100%

As revealed by Exhibit 42, Europe has been the leader in using PPP approaches to delivery road-related infrastructure projects. Even with the U.S. transportation PPP projects included in thetotals for North America in this chart, North America has lagged behind both Europe and theAsian continent in terms of budgeted PPP projects. However the North America region has thesecond largest number of PPP projects planned and funded, and the largest number funded andcompleted from 1985 to 2004. However, these larger numbers are indicative of much smallerPPP projects, including maintenance management contracts and smaller design-build contracts.

Exhibits 43 and 44 display the distribution of PPP road-related projects in other countries,excluding U.S., by facility type and contract approach, respectively, between 1985 and 2004.

19 AECOM Consult, Inc. “Synthesis of Public-Private Partnership Projects for Roads, Bridges & Tunnels from Around the World –1985-2004”, prepared at the request of the Federal Highway Administration, August 30, 2005. Derived from Exhibit 4 on page 8.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 64 Domestic and Global PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (72)

Over that 20-year period there were 539 PPP road projects planned and funded in othercountries, representing $282.5 billion in project costs. The majority of PPP projects in otherparts of the world have used the following delivery approaches: concession, BOT. and BTO.

Exhibit 43 Global Road-Related PPPs by Facility Type, Excluding the U.S. 20

(539 Planned & Funded Projects outside the U.S. worth $282.5 Billion between 1985-2004)

Exhibit 44 Global Road-Related PPPs by Contract Type, Excluding the U.S. 21

(539 Planned & Funded Projects outside the U.S. worth $282.5 Billion between 1985-2004)

20 AECOM Consult, Inc. “Synthesis of Public-Private Partnership Projects for Roads, Bridges & Tunnels from Around the World –1985-2004”, prepared at the request of the Federal Highway Administration, August 30, 2005.21 AECOM Consult, Inc. “Synthesis of Public-Private Partnership Projects for Roads, Bridges & Tunnels from Around the World –1985-2004”, prepared at the request of the Federal Highway Administration, August 30, 2005.

DB10%

Concession42%

BOO0%

DBFO11%

BOT/BTO30%

DBOM7%

ManagementContract

0%DB, 16

ManagementContract, 3

DBOM, 39

BOT/BTO178

DBFO, 61

BOO, 3Concession

239

DB10%

Concession42%

BOO0%

DBFO11%

BOT/BTO30%

DBOM7%

ManagementContract

0%DB, 16

ManagementContract, 3

DBOM, 39

BOT/BTO178

DBFO, 61

BOO, 3Concession

239

Toll Highways67%

Toll Bridges11%

Toll Tunnels9%

Toll Bridges &Tunnels

6% Non-TollHighways

7%

Toll Highways,389

Toll Bridges, 61

Toll Tunnels, 28

Toll Bridges &Tunnels, 5

Non-TollHighways, 56

Toll Highways67%

Toll Bridges11%

Toll Tunnels9%

Toll Bridges &Tunnels

6% Non-TollHighways

7%

Toll Highways,389

Toll Bridges, 61

Toll Tunnels, 28

Toll Bridges &Tunnels, 5

Non-TollHighways, 56

Number of PPP Projects by Facility Type Percent of PPP Project Costs by Facility Type

Number of PPP Projects by Contract Type Percent of PPP Project Costs by Contract Type

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 65 Domestic and Global PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (73)

On the following page, Exhibit 45 shows the breakdown of road-related projects by global regionand PPP contract type, excluding PPP projects in the U.S. to more clearly show the distinctionbetween PPP use in other countries and in the U.S. (shown earlier in Exhibit 38). According toExhibit 45, the regions which have investing the most in PPP contracts for road-related projectsare Europe and Asia. In terms of average project cost, PPP road projects in the United Stateswere about the same size as in Europe and Asia & Far East at about $670-690 million. Bycontrast, there was much greater use of concession and BOT/BOT contracting to deliver roadprojects worldwide, excluding the United States. This is particularly the case in Europe, Asia,Latin America, and Caribbean.

CAPABILITIES TO SUPPORT TRANSPORTATION PROJECT PPPsThe capabilities to develop and implement PPP projects exist in both the United States and innumerous other countries to varying degrees, depending on the type of PPP approach beingconsidered. Many nations overseas have been developing, refining, and applying theseapproaches for almost two decades due to an acute lack of public funding to meeting theexpanding economic and population growth of these nations, and greater demand for personalmobility and commercial accessibility. This is demonstrated by the larger budgets of road-related projects overseas ($282 billion) versus the U.S. ($42 billion) over the past 20 years.22

Domestic and International PPP Project Delivery FirmsAs a result, international capabilities in developing and applying innovative financing,contracting, and project delivery approaches to surface transportation projects have grownsignificantly, particularly in such countries as England, Spain, France, and Australia. Exhibit 46demonstrates the greater extent of international involvement in PPP projects compared to U.S.-based firms. However, the number of U.S.-based firms entering the PPP market for design,construction, finance, operations, and maintenance are growing as more surface transportationagencies turn to PPP project delivery approaches to leverage their limited transportation funds.The use of public-private partnerships for surface transportation project delivery in the UnitedStates is still in its early, formative stages. For the past 15 years, state transportation agencies inthe United States have been experimenting and using alternative project delivery approaches thatinvolve the private sector to greater degrees. Much of this activity has involved the DB approachto project delivery, with a growing number of maintenance management contracts and morerecently concession arrangements, as shown earlier in Exhibit 40. The use of these alternativeproject delivery approaches at the state level has been facilitated by two programs sponsored bythe FHWA, called SEP-14 and SEP-15.Special Experimental Project Number 14 (SEP-14) was authorized in 1990 to enable statetransportation agencies to test innovative contracting approaches to assess their effects on projectcosts, duration, and quality. Among the project contracting approaches considered were cost-plus-time bidding, lane rental, DB contracting, warranty clauses, include indefinite-delivery/indefinite-quantity (IDIQ) contracts, alternative pavement type bidding, no excusebonuses, lump sum bidding, price/qualifications bidding, quality incentives, warrantees andguarantees, system integrator contracts, and performance-based specifications. The main PPPapproach tested by 38 states under this program was DB contracting.

22 AECOM Consult, Inc. “Synthesis of Public-Private Partnership Projects for Roads, Bridges & Tunnels from Around the World –1985-2004”, prepared at the request of the Federal Highway Administration, August 30, 2005.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 66 Domestic and Global PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (74)

Exhibit 45 Road-Related Projects Planned or Completed by Global Region and PPPContract Type, Excluding the U.S. 1985 through 200423

Region Contract Type Number Percent $ Billion Percent

Africa & MiddleEast Concession 1 8% $0.0 1%

DBFO 3 25% $1.6 33%DBOM 2 17% $1.5 32%BOT/BTO 5 42% $1.5 31%BOO 1 8% $0.2 3%DB 0 0% $0.0 0%Mgt Contract 0 0% $0.0 0%

Subtotal 12 100% $4.8 100%

Asia & Far East Concession 49 40% $21.8 26%DBFO 5 4% $9.8 12%DBOM 2 2% $0.2 0%BOT/BTO 61 50% $34.9 42%BOO 1 1% $0.1 0%DB 4 3% $15.8 19%Mgt Contract 0 0% $0.0 0%

Subtotal 122 100% $82.5 100%

Europe Concession 69 34% $61.7 45%DBFO 45 22% $18.3 13%DBOM 26 13% $14.6 11%BOT/BTO 53 26% $31.4 23%BOO 1 0% $0.9 1%DB 4 2% $10.6 8%Mgt Contract 3 1% $0.9 1%

Subtotal 201 100% $138.4 100%Latin America &

Caribbean Concession 45 44% $11.6 44%DBFO 3 3% $0.7 3%DBOM 5 5% $1.7 7%BOT/BTO 50 49% $12.4 47%BOO 0 0% $0.0 0%DB 0 0% $0.0 0%Mgt Contract 0 0% $0.0 0%

Subtotal 103 100% $26.4 100%

North America Concession 75 74% $21.6 71%(excluding U.S.) DBFO 5 5% $1.1 4%

DBOM 4 4% $2.1 7%BOT/BTO 9 9% $2.7 9%BOO 0 0% $0.0 0%DB 8 8% $2.8 9%Mgt Contract 0 0% $0.0 0%

Subtotal 101 100% $30.3 100%

Worldwide Concession 239 44% $116.6 41%(excluding U.S.) DBFO 61 11% $31.5 11%

DBOM 39 7% $20.1 7%BOT/BTO 178 33% $82.9 29%BOO 3 1% $1.2 0%DB 16 3% $29.2 10%Mgt. Contract 3 1% $0.9 0%

Total 539 100% $282.5 100%

23 AECOM Consult, Inc. “Synthesis of Public-Private Partnership Projects for Roads, Bridges & Tunnels from Around the World –1985-2004”, prepared at the request of the Federal Highway Administration, August 30, 2005. Exhibit 13 on page 20.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 67 Domestic and Global PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (75)

Exhibit 46 Top National and International Transportation Developers as of 2006

Special Experiment Project Number 15 (SEP-15) was authorized in 2004 to expand the numberof functions for which alternative approaches can be tested to expedite projects and leveragescarce public resources through expanded opportunities for PPPs. In addition to alternativecontracting approaches, SEP-15 permits the testing of innovative approaches to finance,planning, environmental clearance, and right-of-way acquisition for designated projects. Thisnew SEP-15 program expands on SEP-14 by enabling state and local highway project sponsorsto test a combination of innovative approaches to different aspects of a project to optimize theeffects on project cost, duration, and quality.

Domestic and International Infrastructure FundsIn addition to project delivery capabilities for PPP projects, there have emerged in recent years anumber of domestic infrastructure funds sponsored by major financial companies in the U.S. thatare seeking to compete with the major infrastructure funds sponsored by international financialcompanies. These U.S.-based financial companies are actively pursuing opportunities to helpfinance PPP infrastructure projects, particularly in the emerging transportation sector of themarket.

Exhibit 47 lists the major U.S. financial companies involved in financing transportationinfrastructure in the U.S., as well as the many international finance companies, many of whichare also interested in the U.S. transportation infrastructure market.

MIG/Macquarie Bank (Australia) 51* 14ACS Dragados/Iridium (Spain) 45* 22Ferrovial/Cintra (Spain) 44* 34Sacyr Vallehermoso (Spain) 29* 19FCC (Spain) 27* 20Abertis/La Caixa (Spain) 24* 2Vinci/Cofiroute (France) 21* 26Hochtief (Germany) 19* 16OHL (Spain) 17* 10Cheung Kong Infrastructure 17* 4Laing/Equion (UK) 15* 2Acciona/Necso (Spain) 14* 18Alstom (France) 13* 6EGIS Projects (France) 13* 10Andrade Gutierrez (Brazil) 10* 6AMEC (UK) 9* 6Bouygues (France) 8* 22

Bilfinger Berger (Germany) 8* 9Siemens (Germany) 8* 8Caja Madrid (Spain) 8* 0Bechtel (US) 7* 5Balfour Beatty (UK) 7* 5KBR Brown & Root (US) 7* 3BRISA (Portugal) 7* 3Skanska (Sweden) 6* 10Impregilo (Italy) 6* 4New World Infrastructure (China) 6* 2Alfred McAlpine (UK) 6* 1Fluor (US) 5* 17Bombardier (Canada) 5* 6Carillion (UK) 5* 2AMEY (UK) 5* 5Strabag (Germany) 5* 14Transurban (Australia) 4* 7ABB (Switzerland) 4* 4

Projects Under Construction/Operating* Active Project Proposals

* Road, bridge, tunnel, rail, port, airport concessions over $50m capital putunder construction/operation since 1985. Source: 2006 PWF database.

MIG/Macquarie Bank (Australia)ACS Dragados/Iridium (Spain)Ferrovial/Cintra (Spain)Sacyr Vallehermoso (Spain)FCC (Spain)Abertis/La Caixa (Spain)Vinci/Cofiroute (France)Hochtief (Germany)OHL (Spain)Cheung Kong InfrastructureLaing/Equion (UK)Acciona/Necso (Spain)Alstom (France)EGIS Projects (France)Andrade Gutierrez (Brazil)AMEC (UK)Bouygues (France)

Bilfinger Berger (Germany)Siemens (Germany)Caja Madrid (Spain)Bechtel (US)Balfour Beatty (UK)KBR Brown & Root (US)BRISA (Portugal)Skanska (Sweden)Impregilo (Italy)New World Infrastructure (China)Alfred McAlpine (UK)Fluor (US)Bombardier (Canada)Carillion (UK)AMEY (UK)Strabag (Germany)Transurban (Australia)ABB (Switzerland)* Road, bridge, tunnel, rail, port, airport concessions over $50m

under construction/operation since 1985. Source: 2006 PWF datab

Number of Concessions/PPP Projects by Company

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 68 Domestic and Global PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (76)

Exhibit 47 Partial List of U.S. and International Companies Financing Transportation Infrastructure

Source: Public Works Financing Newsletter, Volume 213, February 2007, p. 5.

These funds tap a variety of institutional investors and well as individual investors throughmutual funds, large pension funds, and insurance funds. It is estimated that the purchasingpower of just 10 of the largest international infrastructure funds is about $200 billion.As the financial community recognizes the opportunities presented by investing in U.S.-basedsurface transportation infrastructure and additional transportation infrastructure funds getestablished, particularly those that tap the long-term institutional pension and insurance funds,the available funds for investment are expected to grow significantly. While there remain legaland institutional challenges to PPP projects in this country, the financial outlook is very brightfor surface transportation PPP projects in the U.S., provided the following conditions are met:

• Public understanding and support;

• Political support and visible champion(s);• Institutional support;

• Broad legal authority to apply PPPs to develop/finance surface transportation projects;• Adequate funding sources committed to the project; and

• Capable public agency staff to administer the PPP project and competitive privateprovider firms to delivery the project most cost-effectively in a cooperative spirit ofpartnership.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 69 Domestic and Global PPPs

U.S. Finance Companies

Carlyle Infrastructure Group (US)

•GE & Credit Suisse First Boston (US)•

Goldman Sachs (US)

JP Morgan Chase (US)•

Lehman Brothers (US)•

Morgan Stanley (US)

• Babco*ck & Brown (AU)• Hastings Fund Management (AU)• MIG/Macquarie Bank (AU)•

HSBC Investment Bank (Asia)•Borealis Infrastructure Fund (CAN)•Ontario Teachers Fund (CAN)•Galaxy Fund (France)•Deutsche Bank (Germany)•

DRIVE – Transurban (AU)

•Star Capital Investors (UK)•Meridiam Infrastructure Fund (UK)•Innisfree (UK)

Citigroup and Blackstone (US)

Japan Bank for Intl. Coop. (Japan)Fondo Italiano (Italy)

International Finance Companies

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (77)

8. LESSONS LEARNED FROM TRANSPORTATION PPP PROJECTS

This section provides a summary of the key lessons learned regarding the application of PPPapproaches to develop, finance, and/or operate and maintain surface transportation infrastructure.This includes critical factors required for successful PPP project development and keyingredients for successful PPP project implementation. Also included is a synthesis of the majorlessons learned from a variety of PPP projects developed in the United States over the past tenyears and PPP projects developed in other countries over the past twenty years.

CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS FOR PPP PROJECT DEVELOPMENT ANDIMPLEMENTATIONNumerous case studies and cameos were prepared of surface transportation PPP projectsdeveloped in the U.S. and in other countries as part of the overall study effort that produced thisdocument. Each case study describes a PPP project in terms of its background, partnershiparrangement, private and public partner roles and responsibilities, funding sources and financialarrangements, impediments incurred during the development and implementation of the project,strategies used to overcome them, and project results when completed.These case studies and cameos provide useful insights into the variety of transportation projectsthat can be developed using PPP approaches and the variety of issues that can affect theirpotential for successful implementation. Appendix A provides a summary of the implications ofa sampling of PPP projects developed in the United States in the past decade, based on the casestudies and cameos contained in the companion report on U.S. PPP projects. Appendix A alsoprovides a summary of implications of PPP projects developed in other countries over a longertimeframe, based on the case studies contained in the companion report on International PPPProjects.The contents of Appendix A reveal the wide range of project results of using different PPPapproaches and the importance of tailoring the project delivery approach to the project and itspublic political legal-institutional context. Exhibits 48 and 49 illustrate a number of the PPPprojects documented in the companion case study reports from the U.S. and other countries,respectively. Exhibit 50 summarizes the critical success factors for transportation PPPs derivedfrom the U.S. and international case studies and cameos documented in these reports.Based on the lessons learned from prior PPP projects in the U.S. and other countries with moreexperience in using PPP approaches for transportation infrastructure delivery, Exhibit 51summarizes the key ingredients to a successful PPP implementation.

LESSONS LEARNED FROM U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORTATION PPPPROJECTSExhibit 52 summarizes the key lessons learned from the domestic and international case studiesand cameos of transportation PPP projects. These summaries offer relevant insights for domesticsponsors and providers of transportation projects in the U.S. as they contemplate using variousPPP approaches to expedite a needed transportation improvement project or improve the cost-effectiveness of a transportation facility that is under active development or alreadyimplemented.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 70 Lessons Learned from PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (78)

Exhibit 48 Illustrations of Selected PPP Projects from the U.S.

T-REX I-25 Corridor Expansion

Location: Denver, Colorado

T-REX I-25 Corridor Expansion

Location: Denver, Colorado

Location: Southern California

Alameda Corridor Rail Expressway

Location: Southern California

Alameda Corridor Rail Expressway

Location: Chicago, Illinois, United States

Chicago Skyway Concession Lease

Location: Chicago, Illinois, United States

Chicago Skyway Concession Lease

Central Texas Turnpike

Location: Central Texas, United States

Central Texas Turnpike

Location: Central Texas, United States

Carolina Bays Parkway

Location: Myrtle Beach, South Carolina

Carolina Bays Parkway

Location: Myrtle Beach, South CarolinaLocation: Houston, Texas, United States

Westpark All Electronic Tollway

Location: Houston, Texas, United States

Westpark All Electronic Tollway

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 71 Lessons Learned from PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (79)

Exhibit 48 Illustrations of Selected PPP Projects from the U.S. - continued

Location: Jersey City, New Jersey, United States

Hudson-Bergen Light Rail Line - DBOM

Location: Jersey City, New Jersey, United States

Hudson-Bergen Light Rail Line - DBOM

Location: Austin, Texas, United States

State Highway 130 Design Build-

Location: Austin, Texas, United StatesLocation: Austin, Texas, United States

State Highway 130 Design Build-

Location: Austin, Texas, United States Location: San Juan, Puerto Rico

Tren Urbano Rail System Project

Location: San Juan, Puerto Rico

Tren Urbano Rail System Project

Location: Atlanta, Georgia, United States

17th Street Bridge over I -75/85

Location: Atlanta, Georgia, United StatesLocation: Atlanta, Georgia, United States

17th Street Bridge over I -75/85

Location: Atlanta, Georgia, United States

Location: Orlando, Florida, United States

Conroy Bridge Interchange at I-4

Location: Orlando, Florida, United States

Conroy Bridge Interchange at I-4

Location: Fairfax County, Virginia, United States

Route 28 Interchange Expansion

Location: Fairfax County, Virginia, United States

Route 28 Interchange Expansion

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 72 Lessons Learned from PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (80)

Exhibit 49 Illustrations of Selected PPP Projects from Other Countries

Location: Dartford, United Kingdom

QE2 - Dartford Bridge

Location: Dartford, United Kingdom

QE2 - Dartford Bridge

Location: Gulf of Corinth, Patras, Greece

Rion-Antirion Bridge

Location: Gulf of Corinth, Patras, Greece

Rion-Antirion Bridge

Location: Central Israel

Trans-Israel Toll Highway 6

Location: Central Israel

Trans-Israel Toll Highway 6Brisbane Inner City Bypass

Location: Brisbane, Queensland, AustraliaLocation: Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

Brisbane Inner City Bypass

Location: Brisbane, Queensland, AustraliaLocation: Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

Location: Bristol, United Kingdom

Second Severn River Bridge

Location: Bristol, United Kingdom

Second Severn River Bridge

Location: Kolkata, India

Second Vivekananda Bridge

Location: Kolkata, India

Second Vivekananda Bridge

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 73 Lessons Learned from PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (81)

Exhibit 50 Critical Success Factors for Transportation PPP Projects

• Stakeholder consultation through regular meetings at both managerial andtechnical levels

• Active public involvement through public outreach and on-going communication

• Political leadership supporting the project and serving as a champion forimplementation

• Secure public control of the infrastructure assets through continued publicownership and PPP team accountability for project results consistent with thecontract terms

• Limited complexity of PPP contract to ensure stakeholder understanding andcompliance

• Well-defined legal authority for the public sector to enter into PPPs and applyalternative methods of funding, financing, and delivering transportationinfrastructure

• Financial viability under various risk factors managed by the appropriatepartner

• Clear delineation and balance of project roles, responsibilities, and risks amongthe PPP partners commensurate with their potential returns

• Demonstrated transportation need (congestion relief, safety improvement,improved accessibility, and travel time reliability) and public support amongstakeholder groups

• Capable public and private sector partners with complementary interests in theproject and a willingness to accommodate changing conditions and opportunitiesconsistent with the desired project outcomes and performance requirements

• Adequate dedicated funding sources for the full term of the PPP contract

• Environmental constructability to ensure the project can be cost-effectively builtwithout damaging the environment through context-sensitive design and valueengineering

• Ample number of capable private sector firms and teams to ensure competition ina transparent procurement and selection process

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 74 Lessons Learned from PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (82)

Exhibit 51 Key Ingredients to a Successful PPP Project Implementation

• Determine early on the relative scope and feasibility of the project.

• Understand the capabilities of the public sponsor to accomplish the project in atimely manner and the potential advantages of a PPP arrangement.

• Have public and private sector stakeholders collaborate and communicate witheach other from the start of project development, with specialized expertiseavailable as needed.

• Enable each party to the PPP to be responsible for those functions it is best ableto perform, resulting in the most cost-effective balance between public andprivate sector responsibilities, risks, and rewards.

• Institute an open, transparent, and fair process to solicit and evaluate PPPproposals from private providers to ensure equal opportunity for all interestedbidders and select on the basis of best life-cycle value.

• Look for receptive partners eager to build a successful long-term partnershipwith compatible project objectives that reinforce each other.

• Apply a flexible project delivery approach to a project with defined designrequirements, recognizing that all projects are unique and may require uniqueapproaches.

• Have each party carefully analyze the project agreement language to ensure thatall project risks are understood, as well as how any risks will be mitigated andwhich party is responsible for such mitigation.

• Have each party scrutinize the financial elements of any proposal and subsequentcontract, including risks factors and responsibility for addressing financialproject risks, approaches to be used for cost management, and performancemonitoring and reporting methods and responsibilities.

• Keep PPP projects moving forward by having both public and privateparticipants promptly work out issues and problems as partners and not asadversaries.

• Hold all parties to the PPP accountable for the terms of the contract agreement,while providing flexibility to accommodate changes in site conditions, projectscope, and enabling technology at or better performance results.

• Institute an on-going project performance monitoring and reporting process toensure project accountability by both public and private partners.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 75 Lessons Learned from PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (83)

Exhibit 52 Lessons Learned from U.S. and International PPP Projects

• Unique situations often require unique solutions. Differences in projects andtheir institutional environments make each project unique in certain ways whichshould be taken into consideration when structuring a PPP contract agreement.

• Allow a flexible project development approach for projects that have demandingdesign requirements to enable the private partner team to introduce innovativedesign and construction techniques that control the cost and timing of the project.

− This suggests the public agency partner not over design the project before bringingthe PPP team on board but instead takes the preliminary design process to the pointwhere the basic requirements of the project are defined so the PPP design team cantake it from there.

− It also suggests that the PPP partners should work collaboratively andconstructively in confronting obstacles that invariably arise during projectdevelopment with creative solutions, instead of playing the "blame game". Thisrequires trust among the members of the PPP.

• Having champions for a PPP project among top elected and appointed officials isessential to moving PPP projects forward in a timely and cost-effective manner,especially in the early stages of environmental clearance, permitting, andfinancing.

• PPPs can benefit by combining multiple objectives that benefit numerousstakeholders, beyond just the PPP members, such as economic development,remediation of brownfield sites, congestion relief, and safety that provide a "win-win" solution set that enhances the chances of the project proceeding.

• PPPs can bring together various stakeholders in a project, some of which mightordinarily serve as an adversary to a project but by being a party to the PPP orthe PPP development process from an early stage, might become advocates of theproject or at least have their opposition neutralized by having their concernsaddressed for the full term of the PPP agreement.

• Transportation PPPs are more likely to survive the stresses of development andimplementation if the partners share a common vision of the project thatprovides continuity and mutual commitment throughout these phases of projectdelivery.

• Other surface transportation facilities nearby a PPP-delivered facility may helpor hurt the success of the PPP arrangement depending on if these facilitieschannel additional traffic to the facility or compete with the facility for the samecustomers.

• Successful PPPs begin with a clear understanding of the respective roles,responsibilities, risks, and returns each partner will assume during the terms ofthe project contract agreements with each party held accountable for deliveringaccording to the terms of the contract.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 76 Lessons Learned from PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (84)

Exhibit 52 Lessons Learned from U.S. and International PPP Projects - continued

• Members of the PPP team should maintain a spirit of openness (transparency)and cooperation throughout the project development and implementationprocesses, soliciting inputs from and communicating with each other and keystakeholders, including the general public. This will help keep the project movingas the parties work out issues in a collaborative manner.

• Risk management can be optimized by retaining a private sector project deliveryteam with extensive experience and capabilities in delivering PPP projects thatmeet the full terms of the contract.

• The public agency project sponsor should take responsibility for theenvironmental clearance and permitting processes, as well as right-of-wayacquisition, particularly if the use of eminent domain or quick take approachesis required to obtain needed parcels for the project.

• Public agencies should develop clear criteria for privatizing their highwayinfrastructure assets, such as transportation need, lack of available publicfunding, need to expedite the project, environmental constructability, financialviability, private sector interest and willing to assume certain project risks inreturn for an acceptable return on their investment, and reasonable risks for bothpublic and private members of the PPP.

• Transparent solicitation and procurement processes provide equal opportunityfor participation in a proposed PPP project by interested private sector firms orteams through comprehensive documentation of facility attributes and projectrequirements.

• Have qualified staff or consultants (legal, procurement, contract administration,financial, traffic and revenue estimation, value engineering, project partnering,and public outreach) participate in the development of the PPP contractagreement and scrutinize the resulting agreement prior to contract execution tomitigate project risks, position responsibility for project risks among thepartner(s) best able to manage them, and determine if the project remainsfinancially viable under a reasonable range of project risks.

• PPP partners should work collaboratively and constructively in confrontingobstacles that invariably arise during project development with creativesolutions, instead of playing the "blame game". This requires trust among themembers of the PPP.

• Inexperience by both public and private members of a PPP can lead to distrustand a dysfunctional partnership, where the respective parties revert to theirtraditional roles of public sponsor client and overseer tightly holding the privatedesigner and contractor to prescribed standards and specifications in anatmosphere of distrust.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 77 Lessons Learned from PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (85)

Exhibit 52 Lessons Learned from U.S. and International PPP Projects - continued

• Instead of resolving disputes amicably and having the private provider teamapply its ingenuity to cost-effectively address project issues as they arise, the lackof a mature partnership arrangement can result in a return to frequent requestsfor change orders, extra work orders, and claims against the project sponsoragency for reimbursem*nt of costs incurred due to unexpected conditions,causing project delays and increased costs that should have been avoided under apartnership arrangement.

• The project sponsor agency should provide due diligence oversight throughoutthe project development process to ensure all partners are upholding theircommitments and that the partnership can withstand various risk factors, such ascost, traffic, revenue, and environmental risks.

• The general public may be more accepting of paying tolls on bridges and tunnelsthan highways.

• PPPs are being used extensively by many countries around the world to deliversurface transportation projects for which the sponsoring government or publicagency lacks the financial resources to delivery the project in a reasonabletimeframe. This is especially true for emerging nations in Central and EasternEurope, Asia, and Latin/South America.

Transportation PPP User Guidebook 78 Lessons Learned from PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (86)

9. CONCLUSIONS

This final section presents a brief synthesis of the key insights discussed in the prior sectionsregarding public-private partnerships and their implications for leveraging the surfacetransportation program in the United States. While listing the advantages and risk managementopportunities of PPPs, it also discusses concerns regarding the need to balance the public andprivate interests underlying PPP project delivery and financing efforts.

GLOBAL USE OF ALTERNATIVE PROJECT DELIVERY METHODS LEADS TODOMESTIC APPLICATIONSTransportation agencies around the world have long faced fiscal challenges caused by the gapbetween the costs of preserving and expanding highway infrastructure and available highwayprogram funding. In most other countries high motor fuel taxes are generally used for non-transportation social programs. The lack of dedicated public funding sources for transportationand the burdens placed on rail and highway infrastructure by a growing global economyprompted transportation policymakers overseas, especially in Western Europe, to develop andapply alternative ways to finance and deliver needed transportation infrastructure since the early1990s. A number of countries in Europe and Asia have turned to the private sector for relief inthe form of contractual public-private partnerships.In the United States, the public sector s interest in PPPs has been stimulated by the widening gapbetween the needs for improving and expanding our aging transportation systems and the scarcepublic funding to address these needs. Facing increasing congestion, declining accessibility,unreliable freight delivery, and obsolete facilities, transportation officials have begun to realizetraditional project delivery and financing approaches cannot come close to addressing theseneeds. PPPs offer public sponsors of transportation projects the potential to expedite theirtransportation programs and leverage scarce public resources by accessing private sector bestpractices, new technology, and capital markets to deliver and operate transportation facilities in amore timely and cost-effective manner. With the U.S. Department of Transportation and itssurface transportation administrations encouraging state and local transportation agencies toconsider the selective use of PPP approaches to expedite urgent transportation projects, there issignificant opportunity for these agencies to add PPPs to their project delivery options.

PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP APPROACHES LEVERAGE SCARCE PUBLICRESOURCESPublic-private partnerships enable public sponsors of transportation projects to enlist theresources and capabilities of the private sector in the performance of certain functions that werepreviously handled by the public sector. This can range from contracted services likemaintenance to full financing, development, operations, and preservation over the service life ofthe asset. The variety of PPP approaches continues to evolve and offers increasing choices tobetter enable state and local transportation agencies to responsibly fulfill their missions. Thoughnot appropriate for all projects, PPPs can benefit many projects, particularly large-scale projectswhich would not otherwise be able to move forward for many years under traditional financingand delivery approaches.

Exhibit 53 illustrates the critical inputs and desired outcomes for transportation projectsdelivered through a PPP.

Transportation PPP Guidebook 79 Conclusions

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (87)

Exhibit 53 Critical Inputs and Desired Outcomes of Transportation PPPs

PPP PROGRAM AND PROJECT DEVELOPMENT STEPS AND CRITICAL SUCCESSFACTORSEstablishing a sustainable PPP program staffed with the appropriate specialized resourcescapable of developing, negotiating, and administering various PPP approaches is an essentialprerequisite for successfully developing and implementing a PPP project. The experience ofstate and local transportation agencies with functioning PPP programs and projects can be quiteuseful to other public agencies beginning to consider applying PPP approaches to their workprograms. Exhibit 54 provides flowcharts showing the basic steps state and local transportationagencies should use to develop and implement PPP programs and individual PPP projects.

In developing PPP programs and applying PPP approaches to transportation projects, thefollowing factors listed in priority order are critical to the success of the resulting projects:

1. Public and market support for the project and the proposed delivery approach basedon demonstrated transportation needs;

2. Political support from elected officials, including one or more project champions;

3. Legal authority through established statutes that permit the application of PPPs totransportation projects;

4. Institutional cooperation from sponsoring agencies lacking the resources (staff,technical, financial) to deliver large and/or complex projects in a timely manner;

5. Adequate funding potential from tolls, availability payments, or economicdevelopment;

6. Competitive private sector resources with a level playing field for bidding teams; and7. Strong partner relationships during contract term based on competence and trust

among the members of a PPP.

Transportation PPP Guidebook 80 Conclusions

Cost-Effective

and TimelyProject

Delivery,Operation,

andPreservation

Legal andRegulatoryAuthority to

Do PPPs

Availability ofCompetent Competitive

Private Providers

EscalatingCosts of

LargeProjects

Relative Roles,Responsibilities, Risks,

and Returns

Public-PrivatePartnershipArrangement

Scarcity ofPublic

Funding andResources

Political,Agency, andThird-PartySupport forPPP Project

Cost-Effective

and TimelyProject

Delivery,Operation,

andPreservation

Legal andRegulatoryAuthority to

Do PPPs

Availability ofCompetent Competitive

Private Providers

EscalatingCosts of

LargeProjects

Relative Roles,Responsibilities, Risks,

and Returns

Public-PrivatePartnershipArrangement

Scarcity ofPublic

Funding andResources

Political,Agency, andThird-PartySupport forPPP Project

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (88)

Exhibit 54 PPP Program and Project Development Flowcharts

In developing transportation projects using PPP approaches, the following concerns must befully considered and addressed throughout the project development and implementation phases:

• Public interest concerns;

• Public perception issues;• Transportation network interoperability concerns; and

• Capability of the sponsoring agency to properly administer a PPP project through:− Procurement and selection;

− Contract development and negotiation; and− Contract administration and performance reporting.

Transportation PPP Guidebook 81 Conclusions

Steps in Developing a PPP Program

1. PerformPreliminary

ProjectPlanning

2. EstablishEligibility ofProject forPPP Status

3. ExplorePotential for

PrivateProvider

Interest inthe Projectas a PPP

4. SolicitProposals

from Short-List of

ProspectivePrivate

Providers

6. Establishand Nurture

PPPArrangementwith Contract

Term

5. SelectBest ValueTeam usingTransparent

Process

1. EstablishInstitutionalContext for

PPP Program

2. DetermineStatutory and

RegulatoryAuthority for

PPPApproaches

3. DefinePotential Range

of Public andPrivate

Responsibilities,Risks, and

Returns

4. DevelopCapabilitiesto Develop

and ManagePPP

Program

5. DetermineProcurement

Approach

Steps in Developing a PPP Project

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (89)

BENEFITS AND RISKS FOR PUBLIC SPONSORS AND PRIVATE PROVIDERS OFPPP PROJECTSIf properly developed and executed, PPP projects offer the following types of potential benefitsto sponsors of transportation infrastructure projects:

• Additional resource capability and capacity;• Accelerated project delivery;

• Reduced costs and increased efficiency;• Risk transfer or sharing with private provider team;

• Quicker access to new technology and innovative techniques; and• Increased ability to hold project delivery team accountable for project performance.

Exhibit 55 arrays the potential benefits and risks to the public sponsor and private partner,respectively. This exhibit shows the complementary nature of the potential advantages of usingPPP approaches. It also shows to which partner the various project risks are likely to be mostsensitive.

Exhibit 55 Potential Benefits and Risks of PPP Approaches by Partner

Transportation PPP Guidebook 82 Conclusions

Potential Benefits to Public SponsorReduced financial constraints/increasedfinancial capacityExpedited project initiation and fasterdeliveryAccess to innovative techniques andspecialized expertiseIntegration of project development anddelivery with life-cycle cost incentivesGreater choices in project approachesIncreased competition and accountabilityRisk transfer to entity better able tomanage

Potential Risks to Public SponsorTransaction/administrative costs toprocure and monitor PPPsTaxation constraintsMoral hazardControl over transportation assets andtoll ratesPublic acceptanceCompensation and termination clausesEnvironmental/archeological clearancePermitting costsRight-of-way costs

Potential Benefits to Private PartnerHigher rate of return compared toconventional project delivery approachGreater control overassets/operation/user feesLower life-cycle costsIncreased revenues from financialtransactionsOpportunity to apply best practices andnew technology to increase productivityand meet performance standards atlowest life-cycle costsOpportunity for value capture from directusers and indirect beneficiaries

Potential Risks to Private PartnerChange in lawEconomic shiftsPublic acceptance/protectionismCurrency/foreign exchangePolitical support/stabilityMoral hazardProject development/maintenance costsProject delivery scheduleFinancial feasibility/traffic & revenue levelsLiability for latent defectsProhibition against non-compete clausesCompensation/termination clausesTransparency requirements

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (90)

Experience from other countries which have long used PPPs for transportation infrastructureprojects shows that the structure and delivery methods selected are highly dependent on thefollowing features:

• Enabling statutes and regulations;

• The capabilities of all members of the PPP to execute their roles and responsibilities;• Flexibility and a proactive approach to identifying and resolving issues that arise during

the project planning, development, and implementation phases;• Underlying taxation arrangements that may lower the cost of the project; and• The ability of capital markets to deliver financing structured to suit each PPP project.

The case studies and cameos contained in the two companion reports illustrate how significantlythese issues can vary and therefore should be addressed on a project-by-project basis.Particularly important are potential risks arising:

• When state or local transportation agencies attempt to implement PPPs for the first time;

• Where legal authority to use PPP approaches is not clearly defined; or• There is strong political, community, or institutional opposition.

NEED FOR OBJECTIVE COMPARISON OF PPP ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONSAs demonstrated in certain case studies, increased involvement by the private sector may not byitself prevent a project from experiencing difficulties that result in higher costs and/or scheduledelays. Various circ*mstances may cause projects to experience problems beyond the ability ofthe private development team to mitigate or eliminate. This is why a careful analysis of potentialrisk factors should be performed before a public sponsor and a private delivery team enter into aPPP arrangement, particularly where there are significant externalities or complexities to theproject. Therefore prospective partners to a PPP should consider the following in assessingwhether to proceed with a particular PPP approach:

• While the involvement of the private sector in a transportation capital project and itsoperations can help improve the cost-effectiveness and timeliness of project delivery andprovide other benefits in terms of risk transfer and access to financial markets, it is not aguarantee of successful delivery or financial self-sufficiency.

• While the involvement of the private sector can enhance the prospects for a good projectto be successfully delivered within budget and schedule limitations, greater involvementby the private sector may not make a project of dubious feasibility automatically becomefeasible. However greater involvement by the private sector may help a marginal projectbecome more feasible and a good project even better through the application of cost-effective practices, use of the latest technology, and access to affordable financialstrategies and capital markets.

• PPPs are not a strategy for turning bad projects into viable projects just because theprivate sector is involved to a greater extent, except in those cases where the privatesector can gain significant value capture benefits that lower the public sponsor sresponsibilities for funding project capital and O&M costs.

Transportation PPP Guidebook 83 Conclusions

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (91)

• The private sector, like the public sponsor, is subject to ridership, development, andrevenue risks. Projections of material prices, ridership, revenues, and developmentactivity are subject to future events or changing conditions that could affect theseestimates. The assumptions upon which traffic and revenue projections are based areoften beyond the control of either the private or public sectors. However, the privateprovider team may be able to better manage and withstand the consequences of theserisks based on their prior experience and the depth and skills of their resources.

• The private sector can misjudge the feasibility of transportation projects deliveredthrough a particular PPP approach given the many factors that can influence projectresults and the provider team s ability to fulfill its contractual obligations in a cost-effective and timely manner. However, the private sector has greater incentive to applydue diligence and risk management techniques to identify and minimize the potential forthese kinds of challenges, particularly when the private sector partner has an equityposition in financing the project which is at risk if the project does not achieve certainperformance requirements.

A review of the available literature and the results of the case studies included in the companionreports to this guidebook indicates that the number of successful PPP transportation projects ismuch larger than the number of projects involving the private sector which have experienceddifficulties, often for reasons not related to the increased involvement by the private sector. Inmany cases the involvement by private sector partners reduced the extent and consequences ofthese difficulties.

With many PPP approaches available, the kind of private sector involvement can vary byfunction, service, project, and agency. Some partnership approaches may not be appropriate orbeneficial in certain cases while in other instances a PPP can turn a troubled project into asuccess. The essence of a PPP is that it is based on a true partnership, where both the publicsponsor and private delivery team are involved in ways that maximize their contributions to theproject based on their respective capabilities. While not a panacea for the fiscal, staffing, andtechnological shortages facing state and local transportation agencies, PPPs can provideadditional resources to the provision of transportation infrastructure and services. As a result, thenumber of state and local transportation agencies sponsoring PPP projects is rapidly growing,while the domestic financial investment community has begun to seize the opportunitiesassociated with this emerging market for transportation infrastructure financing.

OVERCOMING UNCERTAINTY OF PPPs WHILE BALANCING PUBLIC ANDPRIVATE INTERESTSPPPs are new to many state and local governments in this country. Consequently there isconsiderable uncertainty about using these alternative approaches that rely more heavily on theprivate sector than in the past, when there was a clear distinction in responsibilities between thesponsor/owner agency and the private firms that performed final design or construction services.Therefore it is important to emphasize that PPPs involve a sharing of project responsibilities andrisks between public owners of transportation facilities and their private sector partners not anabdication of public authority over or responsibility for these important infrastructure assets.Arriving at an appropriate sharing of responsibilities, risks, and rewards with the private sectorthrough a contractual partnership poses both a challenge and opportunity for public agenciesseeking to rebuild and expedite their transportation programs. It is only through continuouscontract administration that state and local transportation agencies can hold private project

Transportation PPP Guidebook 84 Conclusions

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (92)

partners accountable for project performance in their areas of responsibility, consistent with theterms of the PPP contract agreement, while endeavoring to protect the interests of both publicsponsor and private provider.The uncertainty associated with introducing PPP approaches to state and local transportationprograms and projects can be reduced through insights and guidance provided in the extensiveliterature on PPP programs and projects in the U.S. and around the world. See Appendix E foran extensive list of references on PPPs. Another source of insights on PPPs is documentationfrom actual transportation PPP projects in the form of case studies and cameos, as presented inthe two companion reports to this PPP User Guidebook. See Appendix A for a summary of PPPproject case studies presented in these reports.

* * * * * * * * * * *The information presented in this PPP Guidebook is designed to inform elected and appointedofficials and agency leadership about PPP approaches based on insights provided by peeragencies in the U.S. and around the world which have successfully developed PPP programs andimplemented PPP projects. Armed with this information, public officials will be better able toevaluate whether and how to use PPP approaches to leverage scarce public resources andexpedite financing and delivery of essential transportation projects, while protecting the publicinterest. The guidebook draws significantly from the results of actual transportation PPP projectsin the U.S. and other countries and the experiences of public and private partners involved inthese projects. Hence the guidebook goes beyond the theoretical and hypothetical to providepractical insights into what needs to be considered and done to successfully develop andimplement transportation projects using public-private partnership approaches.

Transportation PPP Guidebook 85 Conclusions

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (93)

APPENDIX A SAMPLE TRANSPORTATION PPP PROJECTRESULTS FROM THE U.S. AND OTHER COUNTRIES

Transportation PPP Guidebook A-1 Sample PPP Project Results

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (94)

KEY RESULTS OF USING PPPs TO DELIVER U.S. TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS

PPP Project PPP Type Timeframe Cost Quality Economic Development Other

Anton AndersonMemorial

TunnelMultimodalConversion

DBOReduced 38-monthschedule by 16months (-42%)

Reduced $59.6Mbudget by $2.6M (-4%)

Consistent withfederal and statestandards

Volume of auto traffic to andfrom Whittier increased by 500%.Number of annual tourists toWhittier area increased by 400%.Recreational boating in Whittierarea increased by 200%.

Project operating andmaintenance (O&M) costs paidfrom user fees (auto tolls),augmented by federal grants untilno longer required.

Atlantic StationRedevelopment

17th StreetBridge

DBB-F Within schedule Within budgetConsistent withstate and localstandards

New bridge opened area to multi-use development in downtownAtlanta in transformedbrownfield site - earning thedevelopment the NationalPhoenix Award for Excellence inBrownfield Development in2004.

By 2006, Atlanta Stationconsisted of 5,000 residentialunits, 47 retail outlets, severalbanks, and shuttle bus servicethroughout development tonearby MARTA rail transitstation.

Atlantic Station Developmentopened 3 years late due toadverse economic conditionsfrom 1999-2002.

Atlantic Station officially openedOctober 20, 2005.

Chicago SkywayBridge Long-Term Lease

ConcessionLease 99-year lease

$1.83B up-frontpayment to Cityfor lease

Concessioncontract assures thefacility will be welloperated andmaintained over its99-year term

$1.83B in proceeds from long-term lease used to reduce Citydebt, repay cost of bridgerehabilitation prior to lease,establish a reserve fund, andprovide a variety of neighborhoodimprovement projects andservices.

Reduction of City outstandingdebt improved its credit ratingand lowered its cost of futuredebt. However the use ofconcession lease proceeds forother than transportationpurposes has caused some toquestion whether the deal is inthe public's best interest,particularly with the highincreases in toll rates specifiedby the concession agreement infuture years of the contract.

Lease proceeds not dedicated toany specific transportationimprovement projects or services,making the deal a net transfer ofthe value of the transportationinfrastructure asset to non-transportation purposes. Thisreduced the transportation assetbase of the City of Chicago andits future potential value capture.

Concession lease enabledconcession team to implementelectronic toll collection andopen road tolling to improveconvenience of using the facilitywith the option of cashless tollcollection.

Route 28 PhaseII Expansion

DB Within fixed-timeschedule

Within fixed-pricebudget

Consistent withCommonwealthstandards

Increasing economicdevelopment within Route 28Special Assessment Districtenabled full Phase II project to beauthorizes, with 6 out of 10interchanges built to replaceinefficient at-grade intersectionswhich has vastly improvedoperating efficiency of arterialand reduced congestion at thesebottlenecks.

Project expedited improvementsneeded to reduce congestionalong the Route 28 corridor andreduced the inflationary effectson project costs.

Upgrading of Route 28 willfurther enhance value ofcommercial property and hastendevelopment along the corridorwithin the Route 28 SpecialAssessment District.

Use of county-based debt furtherreduced costs of the project by upto $150M over the life of thedebt.

Transportation PPP Guidebook A-2 Sample PPP Project Results

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (95)

KEY RESULTS OF USING PPPs TO DELIVER U.S. TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS- continued

PPP Project PPP Type Timeframe Cost Quality Economic Development Other

Route 3 NorthHighway and

BridgeRehabilitation

DB

Increased 42-monthschedule by morethan 34 months(+81%) caused bydifficulty of projectprovider to meetsponsoring agencyquality requirements

Within budget

Consistent withstate standardsbecause of publicagency insistenceon acceptableproducts

Opportunity for jointdevelopment along the corridorwas lost as the project providerteam became pre-occupied withcompleting the project withinbudget and schedule.

Potential DBOM project waslimited to a DB project due toproblems with project delivery,which cost the contractor $3.8Min liquidated damages (capped at1% of overall contract budget)due to completion delays.

Contractorunderestimatedeffort and time todevelop and deliverdocuments neededto support right-of-way acquisition bythe sponsoringagency

Lack of familiarity of both publicand private sector members ofPPP team led to district and abreakdown of the partnershipapproach to the project, whichreverted to a more traditionalapproach to design andconstruction management.

South BayExpressway

(State Road 125)DBOM-F

12-year delaycaused by localcommunity andenvironmentalconcerns. Projectopened to traffic inlate 2006

Project costsincreased due tolocal communityenvironmentalissues andinflation duringthe delay

Consistent withstate and localstandards, underscrutiny ofCALTRANS andits QA contractor

Long project delay reducedaccessibility enhancements toadjacent land owners, whichdelayed economic developmentalong the corridor to be served bySR-125.

Renamed the facility the SouthBay Expressway to provide afresh image to the corridor longtarnished by the environmentaland local community issues thatplagued the project during 12years or protracted negotiationsand law suits.

Despite 12-yeardelay, the projectwas completed 4years earlier thanthe state or countycould have built theproject using theirown funds

Twelve-year delay in projectopening resulted in significantloss of toll revenues during thistimeframe.

Long delay of project and effortsto address environmental andlocal community concernsundermined profitability ofproject for initial project team,which sold its interest in theproject to another team in May2003 which completed and nowoperates the project.

Atlantic City -Brigantine Road

and TunnelConnector

DB-F JointDevelopment On time Within budget

Consistent withstate and localstandards

Project reduced congestion onlocal streets in Atlantic City.

South Jersey TransportationAuthority (SJTA) tolls, parkingfees and up-from cashcontribution from the BrigantineCasino, Hotel, and Spa,incremental property taxes (TIF)generated by new developedmade accessible by the corridor,and NJDOT funds used to payfor the project.

Project corridor improved accessto and from (in case ofemergency evacuation) fromBrigantine Island east of theproject limits.

$28 million contingency fundestablished for environmentalproblems encountered duringconstruction, 85% of whichcould be used for a performancebonus to the contractor if notneeded for environmentalmitigation for on-timecompletion within budget.

Project produced 15,000 jobsduring construction and 5,500permanent jobs at the BrigantineCasino, Hotel, and Spa onceopened.

Transportation PPP Guidebook A-3 Sample PPP Project Results

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (96)

KEY RESULTS OF USING PPPs TO DELIVER U.S. TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS -continued

PPP Project PPP Type Timeframe Cost Quality Economic Development Other

Trans-TexasCorridor - I-35

Corridor Toll RoadProgram

ComprehensiveDevelopmentAgreement

Initial planning andenvironmentalclearance completedfor portions ofcorridor and severalportions areenteringprocurement andaward stage

To be determinedas projectsegments aredeveloped andopened

To be determinedas project segmentsare developed andopened

TTC program is highlyleveraging its limited publicfunding for surface transportationto develop a state-widemultimodal transportationcorridor system that servicesinterstate, cross-border (NAFTA-related), and intrastate travel byauto, truck, and rail, using userfees (tolls) to pay for this hugeprogram.

Flexibility and broad capabilitiesprovided by original PPPlegislation passed by the Texaslegislature several years agomakes toll projects in the TTCprogram highly attractive towould-be project providers fromthe U.S. and overseas, includingconcessionaires.

The recent two-year partialmoratorium on PPP toll projectsin portions of the state may slowprogress on the TTC programand might discourage futureinvestors in Texas PPP projectsunless there is greater clarityregarding the state's commitmentto the PPP-tolling transportationinfrastructure program.

Port of MiamiTunnel

DBFO withAvailabilityPayments

Procurement andselection processcompleted; awaitingfinal financial termsto be negotiated

To be determinedas projectdevelopment getsunderway in later2007

To be determinedas projectdevelopment,operation, andmaintenanceproceeds

Project expected to significantlyreduce congestion on local streetsin downtown Miami near Port ofMiami.

No direct tolls will be charged tousers of the facility due to thepotential for ship and trucktraffic diversion from the Port toother competing ports in Florida.Instead availability payments willbe made to the concession teamby FDOT, based on fundsprovided by FDOT, Miami-DadeCounty, the City of Miami, andthe Port of Miami. The projectwill make extensive use of tax-exempt Private Activity Bonds(PABs) to lower the cost offinancing over the 35-yearconcession contract term.

Transportation PPP Guidebook A-4 Sample PPP Project Results

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (97)

KEY RESULTS OF USING PPPs TO DELIVER U.S. TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS -continued

PPP Project PPP Type Timeframe Cost Quality Economic Development Other

Conroy RoadBridge

DBB - JointDevelopment

(TIF)On time Within budget

Consistent withstate and localstandards

Bridge and approaches off I-4provided direct access to the sitethat produced $244M in neweconomic development and cityproperty taxes greater than theannual debt service costs of theproject within 4 years of opening.

This PPP project was initiated byprivate sector developers whogained the support of the city,county, and state transportationagency to proceed as anexpedited Tax IncrementFinancing (TIF) project.

Significant off-site economicdevelopment surrounding theMall at Millenia site haveproduced additional incrementalproperty tax revenues for both thecity and county.

Site was set up under aCommunity RedevelopmentAuthority (CRA) to facilitaterezoning and financingarrangements.

The Mall at Millenia andsurrounding development haveproduced significant incrementalsales tax revenues for both thestate and county.

Project funding consisted ofCRA-issued tax-exempt debt,state transportation agency loan(later repaid out of excess TIFproceeds), and right-of-waydonated by the privatedevelopment partners.

Significant increase in jobsduring construction of the Mall atMillenia and to staff the mall andrelated development onceopened.

UniversalBoulevard

Bridge

DBB - JointDevelopment

(TIF)On time Within budget

Consistent withstate and localstandards

Bridge and approaches off I-4provided direct access to site thatproduced $750M in neweconomic development and cityproperty taxes more than twicethe annual debt service costs ofthe project within two years ofopening.

This PPP project was initiated byprivate sector developers whogained the support of the city,county, and state transportationagency to proceed as anexpedited TIF-funded project.

Significant increase in jobsduring construction of new themepark and to staff the park, hotels,and parking facilities onceopened.

Site was set up as a CommunityRedevelopment District tofacilitate rezoning and financingarrangements.

Project funding consisted ofCRA-issued tax-exempt debt.

Transportation PPP Guidebook A-5 Sample PPP Project Results

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (98)

KEY RESULTS OF USING PPPs TO DELIVER INTERNATIONALTRANSPORTATION PROJECTS

PPP Project PPP Type Timeframe Cost EconomicDevelopment Other

United Kingdom- M6 TollHighway

54-year DBFOconcession for

first tolledhighway built in

England inmany years

Delayed 8 years dueto public oppositionto tolls on highways

Project costsincreased due todelays caused bycommunity andenvironmentalopposition

Economicdevelopment wasnot a factor due torecent completion offacility and limitedtraffic volume.

Auto traffic increased according toprojections while truck traffic hassignificantly lagged expectations.Plans to expand the toll highway50 miles were abandoned in 2006due to high right-of-way costs, tollopposition, and lack of privatesector interest given theperformance of M6 .Widening thehighway to 6-8 lanes has also beendelayed 8-10 years.

United Kingdom- Dartford Toll

Bridge

First DBFOhighway projectundertaken in

England

Completed onschedule

Completed withinbudget Not available

Provided needed additionalcapacity to relieve congestion onexisting tunnels linking the M-25orbital road crossing the DartfordRiver. Volume of traffic providesthe potential to retire the debtservice on the construction costsof the bridge and rehabilitation ofthe adjacent tunnel within 20 yearsof completion.

United Kingdom- Second Severn

Bridge

DBFOconcession fornew bridge and

O&M on theoriginal bridge

for up to 30years, or until

the debt serviceis retired by

tolls on the twobridges

Completed onschedule

Completed newbridge withinbudget and repaidthe outstandingdebt on theoriginal bridge

Not available

Relieved congestion on paralleloriginal bridge while providingredundant capacity toaccommodate traffic wheneverlanes on either bridges are takenout of service for maintenance andmajor rehabilitation purposes.This became a necessity when theagency operating the originalbridge found that the suspensioncables had severely deterioratedand required replacement.

United Kingdom- M1-A1Highway

Largest andmost complex

DBFOconcession innational PPP

programinitiated in 1994paid by publicagency shadow

tolls

Completed ahead ofschedule, and manyyears ahead of thetimeframe usingtraditional projectdelivery approaches

Completed withinbudget

Reduced congestionin area served by thehighway whichspurred economicdevelopment alongthe highway and thetrunk highways itconnected.

PPP arrangement expeditedresolution of issues and enhancedcoordination and communicationamong the members of thepartnership. The new highwayproduced sufficient traffic to fullysupport the level of shadow tollspaid to the concession team by theHighway Agency to cover bothdebt service and operations andmaintenance costs incurred by theconcession team.

Transportation PPP Guidebook A-6 Sample PPP Project Results

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (99)

KEY RESULTS OF USING PPPs TO DELIVER INTERNATIONALTRANSPORTATION PROJECTS - continued

PPP Project PPP Type Timeframe Cost EconomicDevelopment Other

Australia -Sydney Harbor

Tunnel

BOOT, withminimumrevenue

guarantee

Completed onschedule

Completed withinbudget Not available

Relieved congestion crossingSydney Harbor, and also allowedaddition of dedicated bus lane onthe bridge.

MelbourneCityLink

BOOTconcession for

34 yearsduration

Constructioncompleted onschedule, but tolloperations curtaileduntil start-upproblems werecorrected

Completed withinbudget

Project improvedhighway networkcapacity in centralMelbourne,providingcongestion relief inand aroundMelbourne. It alsoprovided economicbenefits to motorcarriers throughbetter traffic flowalong the system.

First application of cashless openroad tolling in Australia, based onelectronic toll collection andphoto recognition technologies.

Australia -Port of Brisbane

MotorwayDB

Delivered sixmonths ahead ofschedule

Completed $20million underbudget

Not available Not available

Australia -Eastern

Distributor -Airport/M1

Highway

BOT Not available Completed withinbudget Not available Not available

Australia -Sydney Airport

Transit LinkBOOT Completed on

schedule Not available Not available

Required A$704 milliongovernment bailout after projectwas placed in receivership inNovember 2000, six months afteropening. This resulted fromridership levels of only one-quarter what was projected for thefacility. The low ridership levelsfor the Sydney Airport Link wereexacerbated by competition fromanother PPP project, the EasternDistributor highway which runsparallel to the Link.

Australia -Brisbane

Airport RailLink

BOOT Completed onschedule Not available Not available

Ridership far below estimates,sharply reducing credit rating forconcessionaire. Government willtake over the facility after 5 yearsof 35-year operating concession.

Transportation PPP Guidebook A-7 Sample PPP Project Results

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (100)

KEY RESULTS OF USING PPPs TO DELIVER INTERNATIONALTRANSPORTATION PROJECTS - continued

PPP Project PPP Type Timeframe Cost EconomicDevelopment Other

Hong Kong -County ParkMotorway

BOT non-tolledconcession for

30 years

Completed onschedule

Completed withinbudget

This jointdevelopment projectimproved access tocontainer port andairport facilities inthe NorthwestTerritories andencouraged furthereconomicdevelopment in theregion.

Provided strategic highwaylinkage between Hong Kong andmainland China - one of severalnon-tolled highway, bridge, andtunnel PPP projects sponsored bythe Hong Kong government priorto reunification with China.

Israel -Yitzhak RabinTrans-Israel

Highway

Finance-DesignBOT

Concession

Completed onschedule

Completed withinbudget

Project expandedhighway capacity inthe central spin ofIsrael, therebyrelieving congestionalong non-tolledparallel routes to theeast and west of thetolled highway.

The highway is Israel's firsttollway and uses cashless openroad tolling, based on electronictoll collection and photorecognition technologies. Trafficand revenues have grown fasterthan forecasted prior toconstruction.

India -Second

VivekanandaBridge

BOT

Under constructionbut expected to becompleted andopened to traffic in2007

To be determined

Project financingincludes tolls andvalue capture fromnearby economicdevelopmentresulting fromimprovedaccessibility to beprovided by thebridge.

BOT PPP and innovativefinancing approaches enabled thisnecessary bridge to be expeditedto relieve congestion in thenorthern parts of Kolkata.

Øresund Bridgeand Tunnel(Denmark to

Sweden)

Design-Build

Completed in July2000 after eight-year developmentand constructionperiod

Coast-to-coastsection completed25 percent overbudget andlandsideinfrastructurecompleted 70percent overbudget

The Øresundhighway/rail linkbetween Denmarkand Sweden hasspurred economicdevelopment onboth sides of thefacility, especiallyin the vicinity ofMalmö, Sweden,many of whoseresidents work in ornear Copenhagen,Denmark.

This bi-modal facility was thefinal link in the surfacetransportation network ofNorthwest Europe.

Argentina -Rosario-Victoria

BridgeDBOM Completed on

scheduleCompleted withinbudget

Bridge increasedaccessibility andmobility in theMesopotamiaProvinces ofArgentina, spurringincreased trade andbetween thoseprovinces connectedby the bridge andwith the SouthAmerican CommonMarket andincreased economicdevelopment in theregion served by thebridge.

Bridge produced significantincreases in traffic capacitybetween the northernMesopotamia Provinces ofArgentina and reductions invehicle travel times and operatingcosts.

Transportation PPP Guidebook A-8 Sample PPP Project Results

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (101)

APPENDIX B - STATUTORY AUTHORITY AND KEYPROVISIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION PPP PROJECTS

BY STATE

Transportation PPP Guidebook B-1 Statutory Authority and Key Provisions for PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (102)

STATUTORY AUTHORITY FOR TRANSPORTATION PPP PROJECTSBY STATE

Source: Nossaman, Guthner, Knox & Elliott LLP - Legislative developments through February 2007

Transportation PPP Guidebook B-2 Statutory Authority and Key Provisions for PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (103)

STATUTORY AUTHORITY FOR TRANSPORTATION PPP PROJECTSBY STATE continued

Source: Nossaman, Guthner, Knox & Elliott, LLP, February 2007

Transportation PPP Guidebook B-3 Statutory Authority and Key Provisions for PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (104)

STATUTORY AUTHORITY FOR TRANSPORTATION PPP PROJECTSBY STATE continued

1.1

Source: Nossaman, Guthner, Knox & Elliott, LLP, February 2007

Note: In March 2007, the Mississippi State Legislature passed SB 2375, PPP-enabling legislation what allows governmental entitiesto build toll roads and bridges or contract with private companies to design, build, operate, and finance highway toll projects,provided they are new roads, there are free alternative facilities available, and the tolls end when the project debt is retired. (PublicWorks Financing, Volume 214, March 2007, p. 18)

Transportation PPP Guidebook B-4 Statutory Authority and Key Provisions for PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (105)

OVERVIEW OF KEY ELEMENTS AND SAMPLE PROVISIONS OFSTATE PPP ENABLING LEGISLATION FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS

Source: Nossaman, Guthner, Knox & Elliott, LLP, October 2005

Transportation PPP Guidebook B-5 Statutory Authority and Key Provisions for PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (106)

OVERVIEW OF KEY ELEMENTS AND SAMPLE PROVISIONS OFSTATE PPP ENABLING LEGISLATION FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS

- continued

Source: Nossaman, Guthner, Knox & Elliott, LLP, August 2006

Transportation PPP Guidebook B-6 Statutory Authority and Key Provisions for PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (107)

OVERVIEW OF KEY ELEMENTS AND SAMPLE PROVISIONS OFSTATE PPP ENABLING LEGISLATION FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS

- continued

Source: Nossaman, Guthner, Knox & Elliott, LLP, August 2006

Transportation PPP Guidebook B-7 Statutory Authority and Key Provisions for PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (108)

OVERVIEW OF KEY ELEMENTS AND SAMPLE PROVISIONS OFSTATE PPP ENABLING LEGISLATION FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS

- continued

Source: Nossaman, Guthner, Knox & Elliott, LLP, August 2006

Transportation PPP Guidebook B-8 Statutory Authority and Key Provisions for PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (109)

OVERVIEW OF KEY ELEMENTS AND SAMPLE PROVISIONS OFSTATE PPP ENABLING LEGISLATION FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS

- continued

Source: Nossaman, Guthner, Knox & Elliott, LLP, August 2006

Transportation PPP Guidebook B-9 Statutory Authority and Key Provisions for PPPs

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (110)

APPENDIX C - GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Transportation PPP Guidebook C-1 Glossary of Terms

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (111)

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

• Account Servicing: Monitoring the status of accounts of indebtedness, monitoring records ofcurrent debts, billing for amounts due, collecting amounts due, handling debtorcorrespondence, performing follow-up functions, and providing accurate reporting of debtportfolios.

• Accrue: Process of increasing account value, usually associated with interest or other time-related increases in account value.

• Administrative Costs/Charges: Additional costs incurred in processing and handling a debtbecause it has become delinquent. Costs should be based on actual costs incurred or costanalyses which estimate the average of actual additional costs incurred for particular types ofdebt at similar stages of delinquency. Administrative costs should be accrued and assessedfrom the date of delinquency. (See "Delinquency.")

• Administrative Offset: Withholding money payable by the federal government to a personor held by the government for a person or entity in order to satisfy a debt that the person orentity owes the government.

• Advance Construction: States or local governments independently raise upfront capitalrequired for a federally approved project and preserve eligibility for future federal-aidreimbursem*nt for that project. At a later date, the state can obligate federal-aid highwayfunds for reimbursem*nt of the federal share. This tool allows states to take advantage ofaccess to a variety of capital sources, including its own funds, local funds, anticipation notes,revenue bonds, bank loans, etc., to speed project completion.

• Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts: Account established to reduce receivables forestimates of uncollectible amounts to reflect the assets at their net realizable value.

• Amortization: Provision made in advance for the gradual reduction of an amount owed overtime.

• Appraisal: Formal valuation of property, made by a competent authority.• Asset: Any item of economic value, either physical in nature (such as land) or a right to

ownership, expressed in cost or some other value, which an individual or entity owns.• Availability Payments: Periodic (typically annual) payments made by the sponsoring

agency to the project delivery team on the basis of the availability of facility capacity, trafficvolumes, operations and maintenance expenses, safety, facility condition and appearance, orother factors considered important to the users, in lieu of toll revenues when it is not possibleor practical to charge drivers a toll to use the facility.

• Bad Debt Expense: Estimated cost of losses which may be realized as a result of a failure tocollect on receivables. The loss is recorded when information is available that an asset (inthis case, receivables) has probably been impaired or a liability incurred and when theamount can be reasonably estimated. For accounting purposes, the bad debt expenseestimate is recorded when the allowance account is established or periodically adjusted.

• Basis Point: A shorthand financial reference to one-hundredth of one percent (.01 percent)used in connection with yield and interest rates.

Transportation PPP Guidebook C-2 Glossary of Terms

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (112)

• Bond Counsel: A lawyer or law firm, with expertise in bond law, retained by the issuer torender an opinion upon the closing of a municipal bond issue regarding the legality ofissuance and other matters including the description of security pledged and an opinion as tothe tax-exempt status of the bond.

• Bond Insurance: A financial guarantee provided by a major insurance company (usuallyAAA rated) as to the timely repayment of interest and principal of a bond issue.

• Book Value: Net amount at which an asset or liability is carried on the books of account(also referred to as carrying value or amount). It equals the gross nominal amount of anyasset or liability minus any allowance or valuation amount.

• Budget Authority: Authority provided by law to enter into financial obligations that willresult in immediate or future outlays of federal government funds. Budget authority includesthe credit subsidy costs for direct loan and loan guarantee programs. Basic forms of budgetauthority include appropriations, borrowing authority, contract authority, and authority toobligate and expend offsetting receipts and collections.

• Build/Operate/Transfer: Public-private partnership arrangement involving privateconstruction, private operation for given period of time, and eventual transfer to publicownership.

• Build-Own-Operate: A private contractor constructs and operates a facility while retainingownership. The private sector is under no obligation to the government to purchase thefacility or take title.

• Call Risk: Risk to the investor associated with prepayments by the issuer of the principalamount of the bonds prior to the stated maturity date, in accordance with the bonds'redemption provisions.

• Capital Appreciation Bond: Long-term bonds which pay no current interest but accrete orcompound in value from the date of issuance to the date of maturity. CABs differ from zerocoupon bonds in that they are issued at an initial amount and compound in value, in contrastto zeroes, which are issued at a deep-discount and compound to par.

• Capital Reserves: Funds that remain in a bank and are not loaned out. These funds can beused to support a variety of credit enhancement tools. Capital reserves also can be used toleverage the lending institution, or borrow against reserves to expand the pool of availableloan funds.

• Capitalization: Process of depositing various funds as seed capital into a lending institutionto enable financial services. This pool of money is distributed, through loans and creditenhancements, in such a way to ensure that payments are made back to preserve the corpus.

• Capitalized Interest: A specified portion of the original bond proceeds which will be usedto pay interest on the bonds until revenue from planned sources becomes available uponcompletion of construction.

• Charge Off: Alternative term to write-off. Write-off is the preferred term. (See "Write-off".)

Transportation PPP Guidebook C-3 Glossary of Terms

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (113)

• Claim: Synonymous with the term "debt," for purposes of this document. (See "Debt.")Alternative meanings of the word "claim" include a request (1) submitted by a lender forgovernment payment of a defaulted guaranteed loan; (2) filed with the Department of Justicefor the pursuit of litigation and/or enforced collection of an account; or (3) filed with anagency for the payment of an amount considered due to the submitting individual ororganization, such as for medical insurance.

• Close Out: Occurs concurrently with or subsequent to an agency decision to write off a debtfor which the agency has determined that future additional collection attempts would befutile.

• Cohort: Direct loans obligated or loan guarantees committed by a program in the same yeareven if disbursem*nts occur in subsequent years. Post-1992 direct loans or loan guaranteeswill remain with their original cohort throughout the life of the loan, even if the loan ismodified. Pre-1992 loans and loan guarantees that are modified shall each, respectively,constitute a single cohort. (OMB Circular No. A-11, "Preparation and Submission of BudgetEstimates." Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, hereaftercited as OMB Circular No. A-11.)

• Collateral: Any property pledged as security for a loan.• Collection Agency: Private sector entity whose primary business is the collection of

delinquent debts.• Collection: Process of receiving amounts owed to the federal government, such as payment

on a debt.• Commercial: Adjective used to signify a business activity, regardless of whether that

activity has been undertaken by an individual or business.• Compromise: Accepting less than the full amount of the debt owed from the debtor in

satisfaction of the debt. Also referred to as "settlement."• Concession: Long-term lease agreement that involves the lease of publicly financed facilities

to a private sector concessionaire for a specified time period. Under the lease, the privatesector concessionaire agrees to pay an upfront fee to the public agency in order to obtain therights to collect the revenue generated by the facility for a defined period of time (usuallyfrom 25 to 99 years). In addition to the concession fee, the concessionaire agrees to operateand maintain the facility, which may include capital improvements in some instances.

• Concession Benefits: Rights to receive revenues and other benefits (often from tolling) for afixed period of time, including transferring responsibility for increasing user fees to theprivate sector; generating large up-front revenues for the public agency; transferring mostproject, financial, operational and other risks to the private concessionaire; and gainingprivate sector efficiencies in operations and maintenance activities.

• Construction Manager at Risk: A hired construction manager (CM) begins work on theproject during the design phase to provide constructability, pricing, and sequencing analysisof the design. The CM becomes the design-build contractor when a guaranteed maximumprice is agreed upon by the project sponsor and CM.

• Consumer: Adjective used to signify a personal activity. For example, a loan to a farmer tobuy an automobile for personal use would be considered a consumer loan.

Transportation PPP Guidebook C-4 Glossary of Terms

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (114)

• Contingencies: Existing conditions, situations, or circ*mstances which involve uncertaintyand which could result in gains or losses. For example, guaranteed loans representcontingent liabilities which, in the event of default by the borrowers, the federal governmentwould be liable to cover the losses of the guarantors, and thereby sustain the loss itself.

• Contract Authority: A form of budget authority that permits obligations to be made inadvance of appropriations or receipts. Contract authority therefore is unfunded and requiresa subsequent appropriation or offsetting collection to liquidate (pay) the obligations. Thefederal-aid highway program has operated under contract authority since 1921.

• Cooperative Agreement: Written consent between two parties to define the basic structureand purpose of a financial transaction, including the roles the parties involved and the way inwhich funds will be administered.

• Corpus: The corpus refers to all initial funds, additional, and subsequent revenue depositedfor bank capitalization. The corpus is essentially a "body" of funds that is available, on arevolving basis, for use in providing financial assistance to borrowers.

• Coverage Margin: The margin of safety for payment of debt service on a revenue bond,reflecting the number of times (e.g., 1.2) by which annual revenues after operations andmaintenance costs exceed annual debt service.

• Credit Cycle: Complete credit process, composed of four phases: credit extension, accountservicing, debt collection, and write-off/close out.

• Credit Enhancement: Financial guarantees or other types of assistance that improve thecredit of underlying debt obligations. Credit enhancement has the effect of lowering interestcosts and improving the marketability of bond issues.

• Credit Enhancement: Financing tools - such as letters of credit, lines of credit, bondinsurance, debt service reserves, and debt service guarantees -that improve the credit qualityof underlying financial commitments. Credit enhancements have the effect of loweringinterest costs and improving the marketability or liquidity of bond issues.

• Credit Extension: Review and approval of requests for short- and long-term credit.• Credit Program: Federal program that makes loans and/or loan guarantees to non-federal

borrowers.• Credit Reporting Bureau: Private sector entity which collects financial information on

debtors and whose reports on debtors reflect information received from the public and privatesectors.

• Credit Score: A statistically-based measure of risk of a particular type of loan to a particularborrower.

• Credit: Promise of future payment in kind or of money given in exchange of present money,goods, or services.

• Current Discount Rate: Discount rate used to measure the cost of a modification withrespect to the modification of direct loans or loan guarantees. It is the interest rate applicableat the time of modification on marketable Treasury securities with a similar maturity to theremaining maturity of the direct guaranteed loans, under either pre-modification terms, orpost-modification terms, whichever is appropriate.

Transportation PPP Guidebook C-5 Glossary of Terms

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (115)

• Current Receivable: A receivable on which payment is due within 12 months of thereporting period.

• Debt: Synonymous with the term "claim," for purposes of this document. It refers to anamount of money or property which has been determined by an appropriate federal official tobe owed to the U.S. from any person, organization, or entity other than another federalagency. Included as debts are amounts due the U.S. from fees, duties, leases, rents, royalties,services, sales of real or personal property, overpayments, fines, penalties, damages, taxes,interest, forfeitures, and other sources.

• Debt Collection: Recovery of amounts due after routine follow-up fails. This activityincludes the assessment of the debtor's ability to pay, the exploration of possible alternativearrangements to increase the debtor's ability to repay and other efforts to secure payment.

• Deed-in-Lieu of Foreclosure: A voluntary transfer of marketable title to a property to avoidforeclosure.

• Default: Failure to meet any obligation or term of a credit agreement, grant, or contract.Often used to refer accounts more than 90 days delinquent.

• Deficiency: Portion of a loan which remains outstanding after pledged property has beenliquidated (converted to cash) and applied to the outstanding balance.

• Delinquency: Failure of the debtor to pay an obligation or debt by the date specified in theagency's initial written notification or applicable contractual agreement, unless othersatisfactory payment arrangements have been made by that date. Delinquency would alsooccur if, at any time thereafter, the debtor fails to satisfy the obligations under paymentagreement with the agency.

• Design-Bid-Build: The traditional project delivery method where design and constructionare sequential steps in the project development process, where one contract is bid for thedesign phase and then a second contract is bid for the construction phase of the project.

• Design-Build: A procurement or project delivery arrangement whereby a single entity (acontractor with subconsultants, or team of contractors and engineers, often withsubconsultants) is entrusted with both design and construction of a project. The termencompasses design-build-maintain, design-build-operate, design-build-finance and othercontracts that include services in addition to design and construction. Franchise andconcession agreements are included in the term if they provide for the franchisee orconcessionaire to develop the project which is the subject of the agreement.

• Developer Financing: A type of financing where a private party finances the construction orexpansion of a public facility in exchange for the right to build residential housing,commercial stores, and/or industrial facilities on the site. This type of financing often takesthe form of capacity credits, impact fees, or exactions.

• Direct Loan: A disbursem*nt of funds by the Government to a non-Federal borrower under acontract that requires repayment of such funds with or without interest. The term includesthe purchase of, or participation in, a loan made by a non-Federal lender. The term alsoincludes the sale of a Government asset on credit terms of more than 90 days duration. Theterm does not include the acquisition of federally guaranteed non-Federal loans insatisfaction of default or other guarantee claims or the price-support loans of the CommodityCredit Corporation.

Transportation PPP Guidebook C-6 Glossary of Terms

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (116)

• Direct Loan Obligation: A legal or binding agreement by a Federal agency to make a directloan when specified conditions are fulfilled by the borrower. Acquisitions of federallyguaranteed non-Federal loans in satisfaction of default or other guarantee claims are notrecorded as direct loan obligations.

• Direct Loan Subsidy Cost: Estimated long-term cost to the federal government of directloans calculated on a present value basis, excluding administrative costs. The cost is thepresent value of present value of estimated net cash outflows at the time the direct loans aredischarged. The discount rate used on the calculation is the average interest rate (yield) onmarketable Treasury securities of similar maturity to the loan, applicable to the time whenthe loans are disbursed.

• Discharge: Satisfying a debt as a legal obligation through the performance of theobligation(s) imposed under the debt instrument, such as to pay the debt in full, or throughanother action such as a compromise.

• Discretionary Spending: Outlays controllable through the congressional appropriationprocess. Such outlays result from the provision of budgetary resources (includingappropriations and obligation limitations but excluding mandatory spending authority) inappropriation acts. The Budget Enforcement Act establishes annual spending limitations orcaps on discretionary appropriations and resulting outlays.

• Equity: Commitment of money from public or private sources for project finance, with adesignated rate of return target.

• Executive Order 12893: An executive order issued by President Clinton in January 1994,establishing infrastructure investment as a priority for the Administration and directingfederal agencies to establish programs for more effective capital investment from currentfederal funds.

• Face Amount: The par value (i.e., principal or maturity value) of a security.• Financing Account: A non-budget account associated with each credit program account.

The financing account holds fund balances, receives the subsidy cost payment from the creditprogram account, and includes all other cash flows to and from the government resultingfrom post-1991 direct loans or loan guarantees. (OMB Circular No. A-11, and OMBCircular No. A-34, "Instructions on Budget Execution," Part VI, "Credit Apportionment andBudget Execution," hereafter cited as OMB Circular No. A-34.)

• Forbearance: The act of a creditor who refrains from enforcing a debt when it falls due.Various government credit programs, under specific conditions, offer borrowers certainprotections against foreclosure.

• Force Majeure: Events that are beyond the control of a contractor, such as earthquakes,epidemics, blockades, wars, acts of sabotage, and archeological site discoveries.

• Foreclosure: Method of enforcing payment of a debt secured by a mortgage by seizing themortgaged property. Foreclosure terminates all rights which the mortgagor has in themortgaged property upon completion of due process through the courts.

• Forgive: To grant relief from all or part of a debt under statutory authority. When an agencyforgives a debt, or some portion thereof, it is deciding that the amount being waived is notnow part of the government's claim.

Transportation PPP Guidebook C-7 Glossary of Terms

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (117)

• Government Sponsored Enterprise: A shareholder owned and operated financialinstitution, chartered by the federal government that facilitates the flow of investment fundsto specific economic sectors thereby providing access to national capital markets. Theactivities of these private entities are not included in federal budget totals. But because oftheir special relationship to the government, GSEs provide detailed statements assupplementary information for budget presentation. Examples of GSEs include the FederalNational Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae), the Student Loan Marketing Association(Sallie Mae), and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac).

• Governmental Purpose Bond: A term in the Internal Revenue Code for a tax-exempt bondwhich is secured by governmental revenues or whose proceeds are used for a generalgovernmental purpose (as opposed to a private activity bond).

• Grant Anticipation Notes (GANs): Short-term debt that is secured by grant moneyexpected to be received after debt is issued. Financial institutions may buy anticipation noteson behalf of project sponsors in advance of receiving other financial assistance, to enable afaster project start. Helps project sponsors advance projects, especially when unable toaccess capital markets.

• Guarantee: A contract(s) in which a financial institution agrees to take responsibility for allor a portion of a project sponsor's financial obligations for a project under specifiedconditions.

• Innovative Contracting: Alternative contracting practices meant to improve the efficiencyand quality of roadway construction, maintenance, or operation. Examples of innovativecontracting include: A+B contracting, lane rental, the use of warranties, design-build, design-build-operate, design-build-finance-operate-maintain.

• Innovative Finance: Alternative methods of financing construction, maintenance, oroperation of transportation facilities. The term innovative finance covers a broad variety ofnon-traditional financing, including the use of private funds or the use of public funds in anew way, e.g., GARVEE bonds or special tax districts.

• Installment Loan: An obligation to repay monies borrowed at fixed intervals over time.

• Institutional Investor: A financial institution such as a mutual fund, insurance company, orpension fund that purchases securities in large quantities.

• Insurance: Type of guarantee in which any agency pledges the use of accumulated insurancepremiums to offset the cost of default on the part of borrowers. "Loan insurance" isconsidered the equivalent of a "loan guarantee."

• Intelligent Transportation Systems: The application of advanced electronics andcommunication technologies to enhance the capacity and efficiency of transportationsystems, including traveler information, public transportation, and commercial vehicleoperations.

• Interest Method: Method used to amortize the premium or discount of an investment inbonds, or to amortize the subsidy cost allowance of direct loans. Under this method, theamortization amount of the subsidy cost allowance equals the effective interest minus thenominal interest of the direct loans. The effective interest equals the present value of thedirect loans times the effective interest rate (the discount rate). The nominal interest equalsthe nominal amount (face amount) of the direct loans times the stated interest rate (the ratestated in the loan agreements).

Transportation PPP Guidebook C-8 Glossary of Terms

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (118)

• Interest Subsidy: A subsidy provided by financial institutions (such as multi-lateral lenders,state infrastructure banks, or export credit agencies) to lower overall financing costs forproject sponsors. With this tool, project sponsors repay loans at less than current marketrates. Market rates may be determined by the cost of borrowing through conventional issuesof comparable duration.

• Interest: Sum paid or calculated for the use of capital. Financing interest is the chargeassessed as a cost of extending credit as distinguished from additional interest which is thecharge assessed on delinquent debts in order to compensate the federal government for thetime value of money owed and not paid when due. Additional interest is accrued andassessed from the date of delinquency.

• Internal Rate of Return: Interest rate that equates the present value of the expected futurecash flows net of on-going costs for operations, maintenance, repair, reserve funds, and taxes,to the initial capital cost outlay or investment. This is the rate at which the net present valueof the project equals zero.

• Investment Grade: Describes the top four rating categories of relatively secure bondssuitable for a conservative investor. Standard & Poor's rating service looks upon all bondsbetween the AAA and BBB ratings as investment grade. Generally speaking, any bondsrated below BBB are considered to have speculative features and are deemed sub-investmentgrade or junk bonds.

• Junior Debt: Debt having a subordinate or secondary claim on an underlying security orsource of payment for debt service, relative to another issue with a higher priority claim.(See Subordinate Claim.)

• Late Charges: Amounts accrued and assessed on a delinquent debt; the term includesadministrative costs, penalties, and additional interest.

• Letter of Credit: A form of loan from a financial institution to be used only in the instanceof a shortfall in net revenue for debt service (i.e., a contingent loan). A letter of credit issecurity provided directly to the lender/bondholders (via a bond trustee), rather than to theborrower/project sponsor.

• Leverage: A financial mechanism used to increase available funds usually by issuing debt(typically bonds) or by guaranteeing or otherwise assuming liability for others' debt in anamount greater than cash balances.

• Leveraging Ratio: Measures the extent to which a given investment attracts additionalcapital. In the context of this report, the leveraging ratio of federal funds is equal to the totalproject costs divided by the budgetary cost of providing federal credit assistance.

• Liability: Amount owed (i.e., payable) by an individual or entity, such as for terms received,services rendered, expenses incurred, assets acquired, construction performed, and amountsreceived but not yet earned.

• Life-Cycle Costs: The costs of a project over its entire life: from project inception to the endof a transportation facility's design life.

Transportation PPP Guidebook C-9 Glossary of Terms

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (119)

• Line of Credit: A form of loan to be used only in the instance of a shortfall in net revenuefor debt service or other financial commitments (i.e., a contingent loan). A line of credit,while similar to a letter of credit, is security available directly to the borrower/project sponsorwith flexibility in use of the funds.

• Liquidation: Process of converting collateral to cash.• Liquidity: Refers to an investor's ability to sell an investment as a means of payment or

easily convert it to cash without risk of loss of nominal value.• Litigation: Legal action or process taken for full or partial debt recovery.

• Loan Guarantee Commitment: Binding agreement by a federal agency to make a loanguarantee when specified conditions are fulfilled by the borrower, the lender, or any otherparty to the guarantee agreement. (OMB Circular No. A-11).

• Loan Guarantee: Contingent liability created when the federal government assures a privatelender who has made a commitment to disburse funds to a borrower that the lender will berepaid to the extent of a guarantee in the event of default by the debtor.

• Loan Guarantee Subsidy Cost: Estimated long-term cost to the federal government of loanguarantees calculated on a present value basis, excluding administrative costs. The cost isthe present value of estimated net cash outflows at the time the guaranteed loans aredisbursed by the lender. The discount rate used for the calculation is the average interest rate(yield) on marketable Treasury securities of similar maturity to the loan guarantees,applicable to the time when the guaranteed loans are disbursed.

• Loan Servicer: A public or private entity that is responsible for collecting, monitoring, andreporting loan payments. In the context of this report, a loan servicer would also assist inoriginating the loan.

• Loan: Legally binding document which obligates a specific value of funds available fordisbursem*nt. The amount of funds disbursed is to be repaid (with or without interest andlate fees) in accordance with the terms of a promissory note and/or repayment schedule.

• Loan-to-Value Ratio: Represents the proportion of the amount of a loan to the value beingpledged to secure that loan. It is derived as follows: total financing costs (i.e., the marketvalue of the collateral plus the financed portion of any closing costs, insurance premiums, orother transaction-related expenses less the borrower's cash down payment) divided by themarket value of the collateral.

• Mandatory Spending: Outlays generally not controllable through the congressionalappropriation process. Mandatory amounts are budget authority or outlays that cannot beincreased or decreased in a given year without a change in substantive law. Entitlementprograms (e.g., food stamps, Medicare, veterans' pensions) are chief examples of mandatoryprograms, whereby Congress controls spending indirectly, by defining eligibility and settingbenefit payment rules, rather than directly through the appropriation process. With regard tothe federal-aid highway program, mandatory spending refers to outlays resulting fromobligations of contract authority programs not subject to annual obligation limitations, suchas Minimum Allocation, Emergency Relief, and Demonstration Project spending.

Transportation PPP Guidebook C-10 Glossary of Terms

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (120)

• Modification: Federal government action, including legislation or administrative action, thatalters the estimated subsidy cost and the present value of outstanding direct loans (or directloan obligations), or the liability of loan guarantees (or loan guarantee commitments). Directmodifications change the subsidy cost by altering the terms of existing contracts or by sellingloan assets. Indirect modifications are actions that change the subsidy cost by legislation thatalters the way in which an outstanding portfolio of direct loans or loan guarantees isadministered. The term modification does not include subsidy cost re-estimates, the routineadministrative workouts of troubled loans, and actions that are permitted within the existingcontract terms.

• Net Present Value: Amount by which the total present value of cash inflows, net of on-going costs for operations, maintenance, repair, reserve funds, and taxes and discounted atthe cost of capital over the period of the contract, exceed the project s capital cost outlay.(See definition of Present Value below for further explanation of this concept.)

• Nominal (or Face or Par) Value or Amount: Amount of a bond, note, mortgage, or othersecurity as stated in the instrument itself, exclusive of interest or dividend accumulations.The nominal amount may or may not coincide with the price at which the instrument wasfirst sold, its present market value, or its redemption price.

• Non-Current Receivable: a receivable on which payment will not be due within 12 monthsof the reporting period.

• Non-Federal Match: The commitment of state or other non-federal funds required to receivefederal contributions. For example, the U.S. SIB program requires a non-federal match forcapitalization funds, which is 25 percent of the amount of federal funds. The match may belower in states which have a sliding scale rate based on the percentage of federal land in thestate.

• Obligation Authority: The amount of budgetary resources (including new budget authority,balances of unobligated budget authority carried over from prior years, and obligationlimitations) available for obligation in a given fiscal year. With regard to the federal-aidhighway program, obligation authority often refers to the amount of federal-aid obligationlimitation, established annually by Congress in appropriation acts, that is allocated to thestates and controls the amount of apportioned contract authority that can be obligated by thestates in a given fiscal year.

• Original Discount Rate: Discount rate originally used to calculate the present value ofdirect loans or loan guarantee liabilities, when the direct or guaranteed loans were disbursed.

• Outlays: An outlay represents an official payment of funds.

• Parity Debt: Debt obligations issued or to be issued with an equal claim to other debtobligations on the source of payment for debt service.

• Pay-As-You-Go Financing: Describes government financing of capital outlays from currentrevenues or grants rather than by borrowing.

• Penalty: Punitive charge assessed for delinquent debts, with the assessed rate capped by law.• Personal Property: Tangible, movable assets, such as automobiles, planes, and boats.

• Pre-Foreclosure Sale: The opportunity for borrowers who cannot meet their obligation(repayment of a loan) to sell their property in order to avoid foreclosure. Borrowers whoagree to sell their property using this method are generally relieved of their loan obligation.

Transportation PPP Guidebook C-11 Glossary of Terms

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (121)

• Preliminary Rating: A credit opinion from a rating agency based on a preliminaryassessment assigned to a proposed bond issue.

• Prepayment: Partial or full repurchase or other advance deposits of outstanding loanprincipal and interest by the borrower/debtor. The repurchase may be made at a discountfrom the current outstanding principal balance.

• Present Value (PV): The value of future cash flows discounted to the present at certaininterest rate (such as the entity's cost of capital or funds), assuming compounded interest.The GAO definition of present values is as follows: The worth of a future stream of returnsor costs in terms of money paid immediately (or at some designated date). A dollar availableat some date in the future is worth less than a dollar available today because the latter couldbe invested and earn interest in the interim. In calculating present value, prevailing interestrates provide the basis for converting future amounts into their "money now" equivalents.Under credit reform, the subsidy cost of direct loans and loan guarantees are to be computedon a present value basis and included as budget outlays at the time the direct or guaranteedloans are disbursed.

• Principal: Amount loaned to the borrower and owed to the federal government whichexcludes interest, penalties, administrative costs, loan fees, and prepaid charges.

• Program Account: Budget account into which an appropriation to cover the subsidy cost ofa direct loan or loan guarantee program is made and from which such cost is disbursed to thefinancing account. Usually, a separate amount for administrative expenses is alsoappropriated to the program account.

• Project Revenues: All rates, rents, fees, assessments, charges, and other receipts derived bya project sponsor from a project.

• Public-Private Partnership: A contractual agreement formed between public and privatesector partners, which allows more private sector participation than is traditional. Theseagreements usually involve a government agency contracting with a private company torenovate, construct, operate, maintain, and/or manage a facility or system. While the publicsector usually retains ownership in the facility or system, the private party is often givenadditional decision rights in determining how the project or task will be completed most cost-effectively. The term public-private partnership defines an expansive set of relationshipsfrom relatively simple contracts (e.g., A+B contracting), to development agreements that canbe very complicated and technical (e.g., design-build-finance-operate-maintain). In thecontext of this report, the term public-private-partnership is used for any scenario underwhich the private sector would be more of a partner than they are under the traditionalmethod of procurement. Further, the broad definition used for public-private partnershipsincludes many elements that are applied fairly regularly on appropriate projects.

• Ramp-Up Phase: The phase in a project's life cycle immediately following construction. Itis during this phase, the early years of operation, that a project's revenue stream isestablished.

• Purchase Rate: Total actual and projected dollars purchased, including principal andinterest, on a guaranteed loan as a percentage of the total dollars disbursed for a given cohortof loans.

Transportation PPP Guidebook C-12 Glossary of Terms

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (122)

• Purchase: If a borrower is in default for at least 60 days (SBA terms), the lender can requestthe Agency to honor its guarantee by purchasing SBA's pro-rata share of the debt outstandingto the lender. The purchase amount includes principal and up to 120 days (SBA terms)accrued interest.

• Rate Covenant: A contractual agreement in the legal documentation of a bond issuerequiring the issuer to charge rates or fees for the use of specified facilities or operations atleast sufficient to achieve a stated minimum debt service coverage level.

• Rating Agency: An organization that assesses and issues opinions regarding the relativecredit quality of bond issues. The three major municipal bond rating agencies are FitchInvestors Service, Moody's Investors Service, and Standard and Poor.

• Real Property: Tangible, non-movable assets, such as land and buildings.• Receivable: Amount owed to a lender by an individual, organization, or other entity to

satisfy a debt or a claim. Examples of receivables generated by government activitiesinclude amounts due for taxes, loans, the sale of goods and services, fines, penalties,forfeitures, interest, and overpayments of salaries and benefits.

• Recourse: Rights of a holder in due course of a financial instrument (such as a loan) to forcethe endorser on the instrument to meet his or her legal obligations for making good thepayment of the instrument if dishonored by the maker or acceptor.

• Recovery: The dollars collected subsequent to a purchase, net of expenses, on a guaranteedloan.

• Recovery Rate: The total actual and projected collections net of expenses subsequent to apurchase as a percentage of the total projected dollars purchased for a given cohort ofguaranteed loans.

• Re-estimates: Estimates of the subsidy costs performed subsequent to their initial estimatesmade at the time of a loan's disbursem*nt.

• Repayment Agreement: Agreement that establishes the terms and conditions governing therecovery of a debt of the lender and borrower when credit is initially extended or a debt isrescheduled. (See "Reschedule.")

• Reschedule: Procedure of establishing new terms and conditions to facilitate repayment of adebt. Also called restructuring, refinancing, and reamortizing, rescheduling includesestablishing new terms as a result of changes in authorizing legislation (e.g., congressionalaction allowing farmers to have an additional 5 years to pay off their loans).

• Revenue Bonds: Instruments of indebtedness issued by the public sector to finance theconstruction or maintenance of a transportation facility. Revenue bonds, unlike generalobligation bonds, are not backed by the full faith and credit of the government, but areinstead dependent on revenues from the roadway they finance.

• Revolving Loan Fund: Financing tool that recycles funds by providing loans, receiving loanrepayments, and then providing further loans.

Transportation PPP Guidebook C-13 Glossary of Terms

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (123)

• Risk Category: Subdivisions of a cohort of direct loans or loan guarantees into groups ofloans that are relatively hom*ogeneous is cost, given the facts known at the time of obligationor commitment. Risk categories will group all loans obligated or committed for a programduring the fiscal year that share characteristics predictive of defaults and other cost.

• Salary Offset: Process of collecting a debt by deducting part or all of the debt from anemployee's current pay at one or more officially established pay intervals without his or herconsent.

• Secured Debt: Debt for which collateral has been pledged.

• Senior Debt: Debt obligations having a priority claim on the source of payment for debtservice.

• Servicer: Entity under contract to a lender or agency to perform account servicing functions.• Settle: Resolving a debt or claim.

• Shadow Tolling: Shadow tolls are per vehicle amounts paid to a facility operator by a thirdparty such as a sponsoring governmental entity. Shadow tolls are not paid by facility users.Shadow toll amounts paid to a facility operator vary by contract and are typically based uponthe type of vehicle and distance traveled.

• Soft Loan: Loan provided to a project sponsor with flexible repayment terms. Soft loans aregenerally subordinate to other debt, can have variable repayment schedules and extendedterms, and subsidized interest rates.

• Start-Up Project: A separate, free-standing and new facility dependent on its own revenuestream to generate earnings to cover operating and capital costs.

• State Infrastructure Bank: A state or multi-state revolving fund that provides loans, creditenhancement, and other forms of financial assistance to surface transportation projects.

• State Transportation Improvement Program: A short-term transportation planningdocument covering at least a three-year period and updated at least every two years. TheSTIP includes a priority list of projects to be carried out in each of the three years. Projectsincluded in the STIP must be consistent with the long-term transportation plan, must conformto regional air quality implementation plans, and must be financially constrained (achievablewithin existing or reasonably anticipated funding sources).

• State Transportation Plan: The transportation plan covers a 20-year period and includesboth short- and long-term actions that develop and maintain an integrated, intermodaltransportation system. The plan must conform to regional air quality implementation plansand be financially constrained.

• Stress Test: A financial test applied by rating agencies to assess the claims-paying ability ofmunicipal bond insurers. The stress test subjects a bond insurer's portfolio to a severe andprolonged economic downturn that produces an extraordinary level of bond defaults. Inorder to receive an AAA rating on its claims-paying ability, a bond insurer must be able topay all projected claims through the peak years of the stress period and be left with sufficientresources to write new business when more stable economic conditions resume.

• Subordinate Claim: A claim on an underlying source of payment for debt service which isjunior or secondary to that securing another debt obligation. (see Junior Debt)

Transportation PPP Guidebook C-14 Glossary of Terms

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (124)

• Subsidy Cost: The estimated long-term cost to the federal government of providing creditassistance (e.g., direct loans or loan guarantees), calculated on a net present value basis at thetime of disbursem*nt and excluding administrative costs.

• Suspend Collection Action: Placing collection action temporarily in abeyance due to theexistence of a particular set of circ*mstances.

• Tax Refund Offset: Reduction of a debtor's tax overpayments by the amount of legallyenforceable debt owed to a federal agency. It is a type of administrative offset.

• Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN): Social Security Number (SSN) for individuals orthe Employee Identification Number (EIN) for business organizations or non-profit entities.

• TE-045 Innovative Finance Initiative: A research program begun by the Federal HighwayAdministration in 1994 in response to Executive Order 12893. This finance initiative isdesigned to increase investment, accelerate projects, promote the use of existing innovativefinance provisions, and establish the basis for future initiatives by waiving selected federalpolicies and procedures. This allows specific transportation projects to be advanced throughthe use of non-traditional finance mechanisms.

• Terminate Collection Action: Ceasing active collection of a debt. The act of removing thedebt from accounting records is to "write off." A decision to terminate collection actionoccurs concurrently with the write-off.

• TIFIA Credit Program: As part of its 1998 enactment of the Transportation Equity Act forthe 21st Century (TEA 21), Congress established a Federal credit program for largetransportation projects. Sections 1501 to 1504 of TEA 21, collectively the TransportationInfrastructure Finance and Innovation Act of 1998 (TIFIA), authorize the Department ofTransportation (DOT) to provide three forms of credit assistance - secured (direct) loans,loan guarantees and standby lines of credit - to surface transportation projects of national orregional significance. A specific goal of TIFIA is to leverage private co-investment.Because the program offers credit assistance, rather than grant funding, potential projectsmust be capable of generating revenue streams via user charges or other dedicated fundingsources. In general, a project's eligible costs must be reasonably anticipated to total at least$100 million. Credit assistance is available to highway, transit, passenger rail and multi-modal projects. Other types of eligible projects include intercity passenger rail or busprojects, publicly owned intermodal facilities on or adjacent to the National HighwaySystem, projects that provide ground access to airports or seaports, and surface transportationprojects principally involving the installation of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), forwhich the cost threshold is $30 million. The TIFIA credit assistance is limited to 33 percentof eligible project costs. For more information, visit the TIFIA website athttp://tifia.fhwa.dot.gov/

• Title 23 of the United States Code: Highway title that includes many of the laws governingthe federal-aid highway program. The title embodies substantive provisions of law thatCongress considers permanent and need not be reenacted in each new highway authorizationact.

• Title 49 of the United States Code: Transportation title that includes laws governingvarious transportation-related programs and agencies, including the Department ofTransportation, general and intermodal programs, interstate commerce, rail and motorvehicle programs, aviation programs, pipelines, and commercial space transportation.

Transportation PPP Guidebook C-15 Glossary of Terms

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (125)

• Toll Credits: Credits are earned when a State, a toll authority, or a private entity funds acapital highway investment with toll revenues from existing facilities. States may increasethe use of available eligible Federal funding on a project, up to the normal State/localmatching amount, and debit the sum of the toll credits that have been earned by that sameamount.

• Tolling: The process of collecting revenue whereby road users are charged a fee per roadwayuse. Tolls may be collected on a flat-fee basis, time basis, or distance basis and may vary bytype of vehicle.

• Turnkey: A generic term for a variety of public/private partnership arrangements whereby apublic sector entity awards a contract to one or more private firms to undertake thedevelopment, construction, and/or operation of an infrastructure project for a predeterminedperiod of time before turning the project back over to the public entity. Turnkeys may takevarious forms, including design-build-transfer and build-operate-transfer.

• Unobligated Balance: The portion of obligation authority (including new budget authorityand balances of unobligated budget authority carried over from prior years) that has not yetbeen obligated. With regard to the federal-aid highway program, the term generally refers tobalances of apportioned contract authority that the states have been unable to obligate due toannual obligation limitations imposed by Congress.

• Value for Money: The estimated project cost savings associated with using a PPP deliveryapproach, when the project delivery team is paid directly by the sponsoring agency througheither availability payments or shadow tolls instead of from the proceeds coming from directuser charges, like tolls, where value is related to the level of tolls patrons are willing to pay touse the facility.

• Warranty: When used in public-private partnerships for the construction of roads, warrantyclauses guarantee that the roadway will meet a certain level of quality or else repairs will bemade at the private contractor s expense. There are currently two types of warranties used inhighway construction: (1) materials and workmanship warranties and (2) performancewarranties. Under the first type, the contractor is responsible only for defects caused by poormaterials and workmanship. Under the latter, the contractor is responsible for the productmeeting certain agreed upon performance thresholds, regardless of whether materials andworkmanship met State standards.

Workout Group: Group established within an agency, whose sole purpose is to resolve orattempt to resolve troubled debts, including those debts which demand that extreme measuresbe taken to protect the government's interests.

• Write-Off: (Preferred term to "Charge Off") Occurs when an agency official determines,after all appropriate collection tools have been used, that a debt is uncollectible. Activecollection on an account creases and the account is removed from an entity's receivables.

• Zero Coupon Bond: A bond that is originally issued at a deep discount from its par or faceamount and which bears no current interest. The bond is bought at a discount price whichimplies a stated rate of return calculated on the basis of the bond being payable at par atmaturity. (see Capital Appreciation Bond)

Transportation PPP Guidebook C-16 Glossary of Terms

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (126)

APPENDIX D - LIST OF ACRONYMS

Transportation PPP Guidebook D-1 List of Acronyms

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (127)

LIST OF ACRONYMS

AASHTO

AGCA

ARTBA

BOO

BOT/BTO

CBO

American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials

The Associated General Contractors of America

American Road and Transportation Builders Association

Build-Own-Operate

Build-Operate-Transfer/Build-Transfer-Operate

Congressional Budget Office

CEQ Council on Environmental Quality

CFR Code of Federal Regulations

CM

CM@Risk

CPTC

Construction Manager

Construction Manager at Risk

California Private Transportation Company

DB

DBB

DBF

DBOM

DBOM-F

DOT

EBRD

ECI

EIB

Design-Build

Design-Bid-Build

Design-Build-Finance

Design-Build-Operate-Maintain

Design-Build-Operate-Maintain-Finance

Department of Transportation

European Bank for Reconstruction & Development

Early Contractor Involvement

European Investment Bank

EIS Environmental Impact Statement

ESA Endangered Species Act

FHWA Federal Highway Administration

FOIA Freedom of Information Act

FTA Federal Transit Administration

GAN Grant Anticipation Notes or Bonds

GAO General Accounting Office

Transportation PPP Guidebook D-2 List of Acronyms

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (128)

GARVEEs Grant Anticipation Revenue Vehicles (bonds or notes)

HBA Highway Beautification Act

HOV High Occupancy Vehicle

HUD U.S. Department of Housing & Urban Development

IFB

IDB

Invitation for Bid

Inter-American Development Bank

IRR

ISTEA

JDA

Internal Rate of Return

Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991

Joint Development Agreement

LTM Louisiana TIMED Managers

MPO Metropolitan Planning Organization

NEPA National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended

NHS Act National Highway System Designation Act of 1995

NHS National Highway System

NMSHTD New Mexico State Highway & Transportation Department

NPVNTP

OCTA

Net Present ValueNotice to Proceed

Orange County Transit Authority

PDC

PENTA-P

PPP

Project Development Contractor

FTA s PPP Pilot Program (or PPPPP)

Public-Private Partnership

PPTA Public-Private Transportation Act of 1995 (Virginia)

RFP Request for Proposal

RFQ Request for Qualifications

RMAs Regional Mobility Authorities

RSPA Research and Special Programs Administration

SAFETEA Safe, Accountable, Flexible, and Efficient Transportation Equity Act of 2003

SEP-14 Special Experimental Project Number 14 allows state transportation and localtransportation agencies using Federal-aid funds to apply for permission to usea variety of alternative procurement approaches to deliver projects

Transportation PPP Guidebook D-3 List of Acronyms

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (129)

SEP-15 Special Experimental Project Number 15 allows state and local transportationagencies using Federal-aid funds to apply for permission to use alternativeapproaches to transportation planning, financing, contracting, environmentalclearance, and right-of-way acquisition that are more efficient than traditionalapproaches and promote involvement by the private sector through PPPs

SCDOT South Carolina Department of Transportation

SIBs State Infrastructure Banks

STP Surface Transportation Program

TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, as amended

TIFIA Transportation Infrastructure Finance & Innovation Act

TxDOT Texas Department of Transportation

U.S.C. United States Code

USFWS United States Fish & Wildlife Service

UDOT Utah Department of Transportation

USDOT United States Department of Transportation

VDOTVPPP

Virginia Department of TransportationValue Pricing Pilot Program of FHWA

WSDOT Washington State Department of Transportation

WVDOT West Virginia Department of Transportation

Transportation PPP Guidebook D-4 List of Acronyms

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (130)

APPENDIX E - PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPREFERENCES

Transportation PPP Guidebook E-1 PPP References

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (131)

PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP REFERENCES

FHWA PPP RESOURCES

• FHWA Manual for Using PPPs on Highway Projects: Issued in November 2005, thismanual is intended to provide a one-stop resource for States interested in pursuing Public-Private Partnerships and curious as to how Federal requirements apply. Although a summarydocument itself, it identifies links and references that will provide access to more detailedguidance for anyone interested in exploring a Public-Private Partnership.

• Synthesis of Public-Private Partnership Projects for Roads Bridges & Tunnels fromAround the World 1985-2004: This August 2005 report presents a synthesis of acomprehensive database of highway infrastructure projects from around the world financedor delivered through some form of public-private partnership (PPP). This synthesis providesinsights into the nature and extent of highway infrastructure projects that have and are beingadvanced through various types of PPP contractual arrangements. They also reveal thepredominant types and sizes of PPP contracts used in various regions and countries aroundthe world for developing different types of highway infrastructure, including roads, bridges,and tunnels. The results of this synthesis are intended to inform those involved in thedevelopment, funding, or delivery of highway infrastructure regarding the worldwide use ofPPPs to delivery highway and other forms of public use infrastructure.

• FHWA Report to Congress on PPPs: This report, issued in December 2004 by U.S. DOT,answers the questions posed by Congress and attempts to provide a resource document forStates interested in using public-private partnerships as a method of procurement. The reportis divided into five major sections: history and initiatives, value of public-privatepartnerships, impediments to their formation, stakeholder comments, and recommendationsfor removing those impediments. The value section is designed to help States consideringpublic-private partnerships better understand the benefits of such an approach and some ofthe downsides. This report, however, is not designed to be a manual on how to use public-private partnerships as part of a State program. We have not addressed the myriad issuesconcerning when public-private partnerships should be used and how they should benegotiated. The report focuses on the questions posed by the House Report language andprovides the background necessary to provide context for the answers to those questions.

• FHWA Office of International Programs: Contract Administration: Technology andPractice in Europe: In June 2001, a team comprised of Federal, State, contracting, legal,and academic representatives travelled to Portugal, the Netherlands, France, and England.Their mission was to investigate and document alternative contract administration proceduresfor possible implementation in the United States.

The scan team discovered that European highway agencies appear to be better at exploitingthe efficiencies and resources that the private sector offers, through the use of innovativefinancing, alternative contracting techniques, design-build, concessions, performancecontracting, and active asset management. European agencies have created contracts thatfocus on the users, while seeking to allocate risk appropriately and establish an atmosphereof trust in the implementation of procedures. The United States can directly and immediatelyemploy many European procedures to help cope with its most urgent transportation needs.

Transportation PPP Guidebook E-2 PPP References

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (132)

The report discusses these European techniques in terms of procurement, contract types, andpayment mechanisms. The report also addresses the following subjects: best-value selection,performance specifications, design-build, shadow tolls, public-private partnerships,concessions, and design-build-operate-maintain.

• FHWA Innovative Finance Quarterly: This quarterly newsletter, published by FHWA,provides information on the latest developments in Federally-sponsored innovative financeprograms, such as TIFIA, GARVEE Bonds, and SIB transactions. It also featuresdescriptions of innovative projects and programs of interest launched by state DOTs aroundthe country. The newsletter also tracks legislative changes. Copies of all issues of theQuarterly dating back to 1997 are available on the FHWA Innovative Finance website,together with copies of FHWA's earlier Innovative Finance Newsletter.

• Current Toll Road Activity in the U.S.: A Survey and Analysis by FHWA.

• PPP Letter from former Secretary Mineta to Congressman Petri: This letter from formerSecretary Mineta to Congressman Thomas Petri, Chairman of the Subcommittee onHighways, Transit, and Pipelines of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee onTransportation and Infrastructure commends the committee for holding a congressionalhearing on highway public-private partnerships and provides a compressive list of the variousprograms active within U.S. DOT that support partnership projects

TRB PPP RESOURCES

• "Let's Make a Deal" Panel Discussion: On Monday, January 10, 2005 FHWAAdministrator Mary Peters moderated a panel at the Transportation Research Board's annualmeeting titled "Let's Make a Deal." The session was structured as an open forum between theU.S. DOT and private sector players involved in project financing and delivery. The sessionfocused on how the parties need to think creatively and strategically together to advancecritical surface transportation projects, specifically addressing what flexibilities the keystakeholders need to bring to the table.

STATE DOT PPP RESOURCES

• Current Practices in Public-Private Partnerships for Highway Projects: Statesthroughout the country face serious gaps between the level of highway services demanded bycitizens and businesses and the funding available to finance, construct, operate and maintainthe highway system. The needed improvements would provide substantial economic benefitsto the travelling public both to citizens of the sponsoring states and to the residents andbusinesses travelling through these states to other destination.

The State of Maryland is exploring the potential to expand the use of public-privatepartnerships (P3) to deliver highway projects. Maryland has enjoyed success using thedesign-build model of P3 in several highway projects. That model would be expanded to

larger projects and could encompass a broader range of project activities including thefinancing, planning, design, construction, operation and maintenance of highways.

Transportation PPP Guidebook E-3 PPP References

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (133)

Issued in July 2005, this report reviews transportation P3 initiatives throughout the US inorder to gain a broad understanding of the challenges and obstacles associated with suchprograms. The information used in the review came from two concurrent research effortsconducted by staff form the Maryland Transportation Authority, Maryland DOT, the StateHighway Administration, FHWA, and KCI Technologies (the Maryland P3 Team) in 2004.

NATIONAL CENTER FOR PPP RESOURCES

• PPP Final Report: Partnerships in Transportation Workshops: Based on workshoppresentations, panel dialogues, and roundtable discussions, this report outlines the manylessons learned from the workshops, with an emphasis on the elements of a successful PPPproject from both public and private perspectives, impediments to PPPs in surfacetransportation programs, and strategies for overcoming these impediments. The report alsosummarizes the status of PPP programs within each of the states that hosted a PPP workshop.The report concludes by discussing the impacts that the PPP workshops have had on hostagencies, next steps to further promote PPPs, and available resources for sponsors of PPPsand others who are interested in developing and implementing PPP programs and projects.

DEVELOPMENT BANK PPP RESOURCES

• World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3356: Where do We Stand on TransportInfrastructure Deregulation and Public-Private Partnership? The evolution of transportpublic-private partnerships (PPPs) in developing and developed countries since the early1990s seems to be following a similar path: private initiatives work for a while but after ashock to the sector takes place the public sector returns as regulator, owner or financier; aftera while the public sector runs into problems and eventually finds a hybrid solution to ensurethe survival of the sector. This paper reviews the effectiveness of transport infrastructurederegulation from three angles: efficiency, fiscal and users' viewpoint. The paper emphasizesthe difficulties and strong political commitments required to make the reforms sustainableand argues that governments willing to make corrections to the reform path are faced withthe need to address recurrent and emerging issues in transport systems: tariff structure,quality (timetable, safety, environment), access rules for captive shippers, the trend towardrebundling and decrease in intrasectoral competition, multimodalism and the stimulusthrough yardstick competition.

• World Bank Technical Paper No. 399, Concessions for Infrastructure: A Guide to TheirDesign and Award: Concession arrangements entail a myriad of legal and economic issues,including the organization of government entities responsible for concession programs andthe adequacy of the broader legal and regulatory environment. The design andimplementation of concession contracts that allocate risks and responsibilities and themechanisms for evaluating and awarding projects are also of paramount importance. Thegovernment's role as regulator and as a provider of support for infrastructure concessionsmust also be assessed. While some countries have established extensive concessionprograms, others are just beginning to develop these programs. This report provides a guideto the complex range of issues and options involved in the implementation of concessionarrangements, drawing on the experience of both industrial and developing countries.

Transportation PPP Guidebook E-4 PPP References

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (134)

• Public Private Partnerships in Toll Roads in the Peoples Republic of China: This paperwas prepared for the PPIAF/ADB Conference on Infrastructure Development PrivateSolutions for the Poor: The Asian Perspective, Manila, 28-30 October 2002. It provides adetailed review of the toll roads program in China deals with issues that are relevant to othercountries and sectors. Issues addressed include: the motivation for private participation,institutional arrangements (including the use of corporatized companies that are nominallyprivate but in fact government-controlled), and modalities for raising finance - includingsecuritization of toll revenues, bond issues, joint ventures and concessions. Impacts oneconomic and regional development and social equity are assessed. The paper recommendsgreater coordination in planning of toll roads to create an effective network; clearer andstandardized regulatory and institutional frameworks; a greater focus on users; and a moreconsultative approach to resettlement and related issues.

• World Bank Toll Roads and Concessions: This knowledge base deals with the generalissue of toll roads. It also covers contractual options for private sector involvement(including concessions). The knowledge base covers the extent of toll road provisioninternationally, the objectives, benefits, and costs of a toll road program, tariff setting anddevelopment issues, and involvement of the private sector. This key issues document isbased on extensive experience in the sector worldwide and follows on from the work beingcarried out on behalf of the World Bank and Japanese Ministry of Construction on thedevelopment of toll roads in Asia.

• Seminar Proceedings for Asian Toll Road Development in an Era of Financial Crisis:This seminar was held from 9-11 March 1999 at the Tokyo International Forum in Tokyo,Japan. It brought together a wide range of leaders, decision-makers, academics, and otherinfluential people related to toll road development, totalling 340 persons from 17 countries.The Seminar featured 18 individual speeches and presentations, as well as a comprehensivepanel discussion on the last day. Seminar speakers and panellists included MOCJ and WorldBank officials, foreign government representatives, academic experts from Japan and abroad,public and private sector toll road developers and operators, and specialists in the areas of tollroad finance, regulation, and legal issues.

The Seminar Proceedings comprise three volumes. Volume I contains an introductorySection and eight others, one for each of the Seminar Sessions. Volume II containsbackground information on the seminar and its participants. Volume III contains AppendixG, a report entitled Review of Recent Toll Road Experience in Selected Countries, whichserved as the Seminar Resource Report and was given to all Seminar attendees.

• Public Policy for the Private Sector 258 - Unsolicited Proposals: John HodgesCompetitive Solutions for Private Infrastructure: This Paper looks at systems used bysome governments transform unsolicited proposals for private infrastructure projects intocompetitively tendered projects. It focuses on the policies that Chile, the Republic of Korea,the Philippines, and South Africa have adopted for managing such proposals. A companiondiscussion explores the problems associated with unsolicited proposals, especially the risksthey raise for competition and transparency.

• PPP Council of Canada

Transportation PPP Guidebook E-5 PPP References

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (135)

EUROPEAN COMMISSION PPP RESOURCES

• Guidelines for Successful Public-Private Partnerships: This document was designed as apractical tool for PPP practitioners in the public sector faced with the opportunity ofstructuring a PPP and of integrating or blending European Communities grant financing inPPPs. The report is to focus on a number of critical issues influencing the successfulintegration of public grants, private funds, IFI loans (such as the EIB or EBRD) andEuropean Commission financing. Reference is made to a number of analytical techniqueswhich are well known and documented. These are not presented with the objective ofpromoting a standard methodology but rather in an attempt to highlight areas in whichparticular care and analysis needs to be observed. The Guidelines are not designed toprovide an exhaustive list of PPP structures nor present any structures as having theendorsem*nt of the Commission. The Guidelines present five thematic parts dealing with:

− PPP structures, suitability and success factors

− Legal and regulatory structures

− Financial and economic Implications of PPPs

− Integrating grant financing and PPP objectives

− Conception, planning and implementation of PPPs

• Resource Book on PPP Case Studies: The growing interest in the development of PPP swas confirmed by the request, put forward by representatives of Candidate Countries, tocomplement the Guidelines with examples of actual projects in order to better understand thepractical implementation issues. Following this request, the Commission has developed thisResource Book, consisting of case studies of PPPs in both Western and Central Europe andin various sectors including: Water and Wastewater Management, Solid Waste Managementand Transport. These sectors are representative of those in which the Commission hasprovided grant financing. While they are not the only sectors in which PPP principles arebeing applied, they do provide a balance between sectors with a considerable history of PPPapplication such as transport and those in which it is new and encountering issues.

FOUNDATION PPP RESOURCES

• Reason Foundation Annual Privatization Report: The Reason Foundation's AnnualPrivatization Report helps policy- and opinion-makers understand the fast-moving arena ofprivatization, outsourcing, and government reform. The report addresses various forms ofpublic infrastructure. The Surface Transportation section provides excellent informationon PPP developments including:− State PPP Laws

− Sale/Lease of Existing Toll Roads− PPP Toll Road Projects

− HOT Lanes and Express Toll Lanes− Federal Reauthorization of Surface Transportation

− Overseas Toll Road Developments

Transportation PPP Guidebook E-6 PPP References

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (136)

RATING AGENCY PPP RESOURCES

• Public-Private Partnerships: The Next Generation of Infrastructure Finance: Preparedby Fitch Ratings, this technical paper investigates infrastructure requirements in developedand developing nations and finds that they are beginning to exceed available financingresources. This funding gap has lead to widespread acceptance that the private sector, inpartnership with the public sector, might have to play a larger role in infrastructure financing.This role could be active - in the form of project sponsorship - or passive - in the form of aninstitutional bond investor. This paper sees more promise in the latter role. A 'newgeneration' of public-private partnerships (PPPs) is described, wherein project credit risk ispooled through infrastructure banks and layers of credit enhancement are added to engagedomestic debt markets. The role of the private sector in such arrangements is to act as thefinancial engineers, creating enhanced investment vehicles and stimulating the efficient useof capital. For such partnerships to truly succeed, host countries will need to promote arelatively stable macroeconomic environment, develop a legal and regulatory framework forinfrastructure projects, and foster the development of a domestic debt market. Until suchconditions have been achieved, multilateral and development banks will still have asignificant role to play in project financing.

• Project Finance Summary: Debt Rating Criteria: Prepared by Fitch Ratings, thisdocument provides a comprehensive review of the risks facing project-financedinfrastructure, from the perspective of a lender. A rigorous framework is presented. Project-level risks include construction, operations and technology risk, as well as contractual design.Also relevant to the overall risk assessment are sovereign risk, level of legal institutionaldevelopment and force majeure. Credit enhancements such as guarantees and escrowaccounts are discussed. By describing the factors important to lenders to infrastructureprojects, this document will help project designers ensure that their projects are financeable.

• Global Toll Road Rating Guidelines Exposure Draft: Prepared by Fitch Ratings andissued in September 2006 as a companion to the report cited above to guide readers throughthe analytical framework used in assessing the credit quality of various types of toll roadsand financing structures and the treatment of risks associated with these types of facilities.Toll roads are an important way to finance a PPP project due to the cash flow potential of thetoll facilities, whether new or existing. Hence they generally provide enhanced opportunitiesto apply some of the more sophisticated forms of PPPs, such as long-term leases orConcessions.

INDUSTRY JOURNALS AND PERIODICALS

• Public Works Financing: Periodic newsletter whose specific focus since 1988 has been onpublic-private partnerships in infrastructure finance. The editorial staff provides projectsleads, detailed project case studies, news analysis, business and political trends, plus adirectory of 36 of the industry's most experienced consultants. In addition to monthly issues,PWF publishes a database each October of over 2,200 PPP projects that are planned, beingbuilt or operating around the world.

Transportation PPP Guidebook E-7 PPP References

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (137)

• Infrastructure Journal: British publication and website dedicated to PPPs across all sectors.Infrastructure Journal also prepares PPP case studies and organizes conferences. It is aninternational forum with 29% of its reader distribution in Europe, 17% in Asia, 31% in NorthAmerica, 18% in Latin America, and 5% in the Middle East and Africa. Its readershipincludes public officials, lawyers, consultants, contractors, commercial lenders, multilateraland bilateral lenders, development agencies, and project sponsors and developers.

• Innovation Briefs: Provides transportation policy analysis for legislators, public officials,business leaders, newspaper editors and transportation professionals. The Briefs' criticalcommentaries and incisive analysis of current events keep our readers in touch with events,trends and ideas in the transportation world. Innovations Briefs is published by the UrbanMobility Corporation (UMC), a Washington-based consultancy established in 1982specializing in transportation management and technology transfer.

• The Bond Buyer: The definitive source of up-to-date information on bond offerings in theUnited States. It is available by subscription only, in both on-line and paper format. Thepaper is updated daily.

• Project Finance Magazine: Provides strategic information, news, and forecasts and trendanalysis on the project finance markets. It contains features on countries, infrastructuresurveys by region and sector, and agency and development bank news. It offers periodicindustry- and region-specific special issues and maintains a team of 22 journalists who trackcurrent developments around the world.

• TOLLROADSnews: Publication specializing in tolling that describes this emerging servicebusiness and documents the debates and controversies. It provides descriptions of new tollprojects around the world, analysis of political, legal, and economic problems of toll projects,information on toll technologies, and reports on ongoing operations of toll agencies andprojects.

• The International Comparative Legal Guide to: PPP / PFI Projects 2007: Internationalsummary of legal status and issues associated with the use of PPPs in other countries. Firstpublished by the Global Legal Group Ltd, London in November 2006.

• Wall Street Journal: Published by Dow Jones & Company, Inc., the Wall Street Journal isone of the most respected daily financial newspapers in the world. It carries information onall aspects of finance and is used as a reference by nearly all financiers.

• Engineering News Record (ENR): Weekly engineering industry magazine has onlineaccess. Recent articles are listed by topic, such as transportation or finance. The site alsoprovides up to date construction pricing information, indicating recent cost trends for keyconstruction materials.

• American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Journal:Weekly publication that covers legislative and regulatory news on transportation. TheAASHTO site search engine references previous volumes of the journal but without specificarticle references.

Transportation PPP Guidebook E-8 PPP References

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (138)

PPP BOOKS

• Achieving Public Private Partnership in the Transport Sector: This is the first volume ina series sponsored by the Diebold Institute for Public Policy Studies. The book reviews thehistory of transport partnerships around the world and provides detailed case studies of threerecent partnership projects:− The M1/M15 Motorway in Western Hungary, a 56.3-kilometer, US $330 million facility;

− The Vasco da Gama Bridge, a 12.3-kilometer, US $1.0 billion bridge in Lisbon, Portugal− The Bangkok Mass Transit System, a 23.7-kilometer, US $1.5 billion elevated rail mass

transit system in the Thai capital

Research for the book has been assembled through interviews with financial advisers,bankers, construction companies, investors, government officials, development banks,academicians, and journalists, together with the review of primary project documents andother written materials.

Representing a case of failure, a case of success, and one whose fate has not yet beendetermined, the cases offer rich comparisons. They have been shaped by differing culturalexpectations and economic conditions. They have also benefited from the commitment ofcreative supporters and been subjected to changing political winds.

• International Project Financing: This book deals with the legal issues encountered whennegotiating and drafting agreements relating to project finance, and is designed for generaluse throughout the world rather than any particular country. The book is printed in loose-leafform and is updated annually. It provides a chapter-by-chapter analysis and discussion of thedifferent issues involved in project finance, together with contract forms that represent acollection of documents used around the world.

• Going Private - The International Experience with Transport Privatization: Examinesthe diverse privatization experiences of transportation services and facilities. Cases aredrawn from the United States, Asia, Europe, and Latin America. Since almost every countryhas experimented to some degree with highway and bus privatization, the authors focusparticularly on these services, although they also discuss urban rail transit and airports.Highways and buses, they explain, encompass all three of the most common and basic formsof privatization: The sale of an existing state-owned enterprise; use of private, rather thanpublic, financing and management for new infrastructure development; and contracting out toprivate vendors public services previously provided by government employees.

Transportation PPP Guidebook E-9 PPP References

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (139)

APPENDIX F - PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP WEB SITELINKS

Transportation PPP Guidebook F-1 PPP Web Sites

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ...· 7/7/2007 · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (140)

PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP WEB SITE LINKS

• The National Council for Public-Private Partnerships (NCPPP) URL: http://ncppp.org

• AASHTO/FHWA Innovative Finance Web Site URL:http://www.innovativefinance.org

• FHWA Asset Management Website URL: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/asstmgmt/index.htm

• U.S. Department of Transportation TIFIA Credit Program URL: http://www.tifia.fhwa.dot.gov

• The American Road & Transportation Builder s Association URL:http://www.artba.org

• American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials URL: http://www.transportation.org

• American Public Transit Association URL: http://www.apta.com• International Bridge Tunnel and Turnpike Association URL: http://www.ibtta.org

• World Road Association (PIARC) URL: http://www.piarc.org• International Road Federation URL: http://www.irfnet.org

• International Bank for Reconstruction and Development - URL:http://www.worldbank.org

• Asia Development Bank URL: http://www.adb.org

• Inter-American Development Bank URL: http://www.iadb.org• European Bank for Reconstruction and Development URL: http://www.ebrd.com

• European Investment Bank URL: http://www.ebrd.com• European Union URL: http://www.europa.eu.int

• European Union Transport Activities - URL: http://www.europa.eu.int/pol/trans• Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development - URL: http://www.oecd.org

• United Kingdom Highway Agency - URL: http://www.highwaysgov.uk• Reason Public Policy Institute - URL: http://www.reason.org

• Diebold Institute for Public Policy Studies - URL: http://www.dieboldinstitute.org• U.S. General Accountability Office - URL: http://www.gao.gov

• The World Bank - URL: http://www.worldbank.org/transport/roads/toll_rds.htm

Transportation PPP Guidebook F-2 PPP Web Sites

User Guidebook on Implementing Public- Private ... · 7/7/2007  · USER GUIDEBOOK ON IMPLEMENTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS IN THE UNITED - [PDF Document] (2024)

References

Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Gregorio Kreiger

Last Updated:

Views: 6343

Rating: 4.7 / 5 (77 voted)

Reviews: 92% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Gregorio Kreiger

Birthday: 1994-12-18

Address: 89212 Tracey Ramp, Sunside, MT 08453-0951

Phone: +9014805370218

Job: Customer Designer

Hobby: Mountain biking, Orienteering, Hiking, Sewing, Backpacking, Mushroom hunting, Backpacking

Introduction: My name is Gregorio Kreiger, I am a tender, brainy, enthusiastic, combative, agreeable, gentle, gentle person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.